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Buddhism: Sacred or Revered Texts - Одесская Богословская Семинария.

Buddhism: Sacred or Revered Texts:

  1. The teachings of the Buddha were not originally written down, but were transmitted in an oral tradition for several centuries.

      1. For this reason, each sutra typically begins with the phrase, "Thus have I heard"
  2. When the written teachings emerged, they were in different forms.

  3. The “Three Baskets” are a collection of text.

      1. The Pali canon is comprised of three works or "baskets" (pitaka)
      2. The Sutra Pitaka - the discourses of the Buddha.
      3. The Vinaya Pitaka - accounts on the origin of the sangha and the rules of monastic discipline.
      4. The Abhidharma Pitaka - scholastic treatises on Buddhist psychology and philosophy
      5. These "baskets" make up the Tripitaka ("Three Baskets") and serve as the main body of scriptures for the Theravada tradition
  4. Shastras – Some people believes that the early doctrines are incomplete and therefore supplement it with additional writings.



Introduction to Islam and Mohammed

* 331.(Title slide)

    1. Introduction to Islam and Mohammed

      1. Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the modern world.

      2. In this section we will look at the historical foundations of Islam.

      3. The student should review resource materials and the outline of this topic before beginning.

      4. After proceeding through the slides and reading materials, the student should completed the assignment and submitted it to http://www.odessachurch.com


Definitions and terms:



Ramadan

The ninth month in the Islamic lunar year. The first sighting of the new moon during this month begins the fast of Ramadan.

symbol of the crescent

Muslims follow a lunar calendar and have their own names for the months. The ninth month is the month of Ramadan. The symbol of the crescent was used as a symbol for Constantinople and was based on a moon goddess myth. This was also used by the Christians as a symbol for the city and later in 1453 when the city was concurred by the Muslims it was continued and viewed as a Turkish symbol. In the early 19th century it was combined with a star to be the most common symbol for Islam. Many festival dates are determined by the appearance of the moon.

dar al-Islam

Territory occupied by Islam

Ayatollah Komeini

He wanted to export the Islamic revolution from Iran to other countries.

da`wa

The word used by Muslims to describe their missionary activity which they say means “calling or invitation” The Qur’an says, “There is no compulsion in religion” (2:256)

Koran or Qur’an

Revelations to Mohammad

Maulana

19

Idul Fitr

A festival observed on the first day after the month of Ramadan. This is a time of joy and happiness, special food, visiting of friends and the giving of gifts to children.

Idul Adha

A festival from the 10th to the 12th day of the month of Dhul Hijjah and celebrates the willingness of Abraham to offer his son “Ishmael”. There are celebration prayers and the sacrifice of animals such as sheep, goats, cows or a camel to seek the pleasure of Allah.

Shari’ah

Islamic law

Pbuh

Peace be upon him – Muslims show respect for all prophets by flowing their name with this phrase.

Hijra

The Migration of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Islamic calendar is dated from this event.

Mosque

From the Arabic word “masjid” meaning a place of prostration, in worship.

Imam

The leader of the local Mosque. His position is similar but not the same as that of pastor or priest.

Wudu

The ritual washing of hands, arms, face, nose, and feet before they pray.

Mihrab

The alcove in the wall which marks the direction of Mecca. Muslims face Mecca to pray.

Minbar

The pulpit with steps, usually made of wood, from which the imam gives a sermon at the Friday prayers.

Fatiha

The first sura of the Koran.

Sura

A chapter in the Koran.

Minaret

The spire from which the call to prayer is given.

Hijab

The long scarf or vale worn my Muslim women.

Adhan

The call to prayer. (pronounced azan) This is chanted in Arabic five time a day.

Salat

The required prayers.

Shiites

Party of Ali who felt succession to Muhammad should be a relative.

Sunni

Orthodox Islam

Sufi

A division of Muslim mystics

Jinn

Creatures between angles and men. Some are good and others evil. (The movie Aladdin makes use of such ideas. Jinni.)

Hajj

The pilgrimage to Mecca.

Caliph or Kaliph

Successor to the Prophet

Abu Bakr

First Caliph 632-634

`Umar

Second Caliph 634-644

Uthman

Third Caliph 644-656

Ali

Fourth Caliph 656-661

Quraysh

Muhammad’s tribe or clan

Abu Talib

Muhammad’s uncle who raised him

Khadija

Muhammad’s first wife

Hadith

The record of a saying or action of the Prophet – The hadith is the record about the sunna or action = tradition.

Sunna

The example or the way the Prophet did something. – The hadith is the record about the sunna or action = tradition.

Shari`a

Law

Ijtihad

The activity of scholars (ulama) to decide upon Islamic law relating to new circumstances.

Ulama

Scholars

Fiqh

The science of law is called jurisprudence or “fiqh.”

Umma

The people of Islam

Jihad

Effort, struggle – the effort of Muslim believers for the rule of God and supremacy of Islam in the world





Much material was taken from:

Cross and Crescent by Colin Chapman.

Answering Islam by Norman Geisler and Abdul Saleeb
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