finally compelled - 361 religious encyclopedia

finally compelled

the archbishop of Nidaros to draw. the reins tighter, and to force Norwegian bishops upon the island




(c. 1238). These, naturally, were doubly energetic

in their advocacy of the canon law, and above all

they antagonized lay patronage.

Conflict From the middle of the thirteenth

between century, most of the Icelandic bishops

Church were foreigners. However, the few

and State; native ones labored zealously in the


spirit of the metropolitan. The conflict

between Church and State flamed up

with especial vehemence when, in 1275, Bishop Arni

Thorlaksson of Skalholt attempted to carry the

new church law, thoroughly based on the canon

law, through the Alting (the Icelandic legislative

assembly). By the introduction of this new church

law, the ecclesiastical power triumphed over the

temporal, and the authority of the spirituality was

on a like footing with that in other countries of the

West. But by the same process the great national

interest which the clergy had exhibited in earlier

times vanished. From the earliest times, in fact,

there had flourished not only at the episcopal sees,

but also about a number of priestly residences,

schools of science and especially of national history.

Priests like Saemundr and Ari were at the same time

students of the history of Iceland. These priestly

schools were supplemented by schools in connection

with the cloisters. The oldest cloister of Iceland

is the Benedictine at Thingeyrar, founded in 1133,

and this was followed by six more for monks and

two for nuns, all founded by the Benedictine and

Augustinian orders. The stirring intellectual in­

dustry of the clergy, which prevailed in the island

until about the middle of the thirteenth century,

now began to  cease. Stress was laid on externals,

and people were generally satisfied if the layman

knew his Credo and Paternoster, and perchance the

Ave Maria. Conduct was for the most part dis­

regarded by the clergy, who shut their eyes to

superstition and immorality, and became them­

selves avaricious and immoral. An improvement

did not set in until the Icelanders had absorbed the

spirit of the Lutheran doctrine in " flesh and blood."

The Reformation, like the introduction of Chris­

tianity, in Iceland was helped forward by royal

mandate. From the fourteenth cen­



tury the island, along with Norway,

mation. had accrued to Denmark. After Chris­

tian III., in 1536, had adopted Lu­

ther's doctrine in his dominion proper, he labored

zealously to advance the same in Iceland as well.

A number of clergymen were already on the ground

who had learned to know the new doctrine, but they

met with vehement opposition on the part of the

Icelandic bishops and the Icelandic people. Among

them was Oddr Gottskalksson, who rendered into

Icelandic the New Testament according to Luther's

translation. A command of King Christian III.

was read aloud in the Alting, to the effect that the

new church r6gime should be adopted in the island,

but Bishop Jon Arason of Holar and the people of

the North, as well as many in the diocese of Skal­

holt, stayed loyally papal.


after these men

were out of the way was the opposition broken.

At the Alting of 1551 the Danish church system

was recognized as binding for all Iceland. Most of

the church and cloister estates were confiscated

by Danish officials for the king; church revenues, such as the episcopal tithes, likewise flowed into the royal exchequer. By this process the incomes of the clergy, who were elected by the congregation and inducted by the government, became somewhat meager. There consequently ensued a dearth of suitable preachers, and not infrequently one pastor would assume charge of several parishes combined. At the head of these clergymen stood the bishops of Holar and Skalholt, likewise designated by the Danish king. Of the episcopal sees, that of Holar came to an end in 1801, whereas, prior to that event, the bishopric of Skalholt had been transferred to the present capital, Reikiavik. Moreover, the im­morality among laity and clergy remained very much the same as of old. For this reason the ad­herents of the new doctrine deported themselves with a fanaticism that calls to mind the uprising of the Anabaptists. Cloisters were destroyed, churches plundered, and many valuable literary treasures were obliterated. .Hence the introduction of the Reformation has been repeatedly described by the Icelanders themselves as a national mis­fortune. Only in the course of the seventeenth cen­tury did Luther's spirit penetrate deeper into the hearts of the people; by which time, thanks to the fostering of the art of printing (introduced about 1550), and the founding of the Latin schools at Holar (1552) and Skalholt (1553), scientific interest had been awakened anew. No inconsiderable in­fluence in this direction had also been contributed by Bishop Gudbrandur Thorlti,ksson of Holar, who published, in 1584, the first complete translation of the Bible in the mother tongue, and issued several collections of good spiritual hymns. The devotional poetry inaugurated by Gudbrandur achieved its crowning success about one hundred years later, in the passion psalms of Hallgrimur Pjetursson.

Iceland is now thoroughly Protestant, although according to the law of the year 1874, there prevails

complete freedom of belief. All at­Present tempts to reinstate Roman Cathol­Conditions. icism in the island have miscarried.

At the head of the church system

stands the bishop of Reikiavik, who supervises the

common school system. The country is divided

into twenty church districts, each directed by a

superintendent. There are 141 parishes in Iceland,

comprising 299 churches. The junior clergy are

trained in the theological school at Reikiavik, where

they are accustomed to spend three years after

completing the gymnasium course, and are then

practically inducted into the pastoral office by an

older clergyman. E. MOGg.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A very rich list of Icelandic literature and of books about Iceland is given in the British Museum Catalogue, where is found also a list of the " Icelandic post­Reformation Bishops." Sources for study are: Area Isldnderbuch, ed. W. Golther, Halle, 1892; Biskupas6gur, 2 vols., Copenhagen, 1858 78; Sturlunga Saga, ed. G. Vigfusson, 2 vols., Oxford, 1878; Diplomatarium Ialand­icum, vols. i. viii., Copenhagen, 1857 1908; important contents are in the Heimakringla of Snorri, ed. F. Jonsson, Copenhagen, 1893 1901. The oldest Christian statutes are in theGrhgfis, ed. with preface, V. Finxn, 3 vols., Copen­hagen, 1850 83. For later times, of service are: Biskupa an­nalar ions Egilssonar, ed. J. Sigurdson, i. 15 136, Safn til Sbgu Islands; and Annalar Bjiirns a Skardsa (1400 1645),



2 vols., Hrappseym, 1774 75. Consult further: Finnur Johannsaus, Hiet. eccl. Islandia=, 4 vols., Copenhagen, 1772 78; J. Espolin, Islands arbaekur (1263 1832), 12 vols., ib., 1824 55; P. Petureson, Hist. awl. Islandfa (1740 1840), ib., 1841; P. A. Munch, Dot Norake Folks Historie, 6 vols., Christiania, 1852 63; K. Maurer, Die Bekehrung des norwegisehen Stammes rum Christentum, 2 vols., Munich, 1855 58; idem, Island von seiner erden Entdeekung bis rum Untergang des Freistaates, ib., 1874; J. E. W. Sam Udsigt over den norske Historie, 4 vols., Christiania. 1873 91; A. D. Jorgensen, Den nordisks Kirkes Grundlteggelse, 2 vols., Copenhagen, 1874 76; C. A. V. Conybeare, Iceland; its PlaceintheHist. of European In­atitutions, London, 1877; Letitia M. Macooll, The Story of Iceland, ib. 1887; Stories of the Bishops of Iceland 1066­1330, ib. 1895; The Book of as Settlement of Iceland, transl. by T. Ellwood, Kendal, 1898; L  Livre des Islandais du prltre Ari le Savant, Lidge, 1898; Bjorn Olsen, Um Kriatnitbkuna arid 1,000, Reikiavik, 1900; P. Herrmann, Island in Ver­ganpenheit dnd Gepenwart, Leipsie, 1907.



ICONOSTASIS, aVloo nes'ta sis: In the Eastern Church, a screen, generally decorated with pictures, which stands before the altar and conceals it. From the first, it was customary in the Christian Church to mark off the bema by rails, but, these being very

I, Various Types of Idealism. IL German Idealism. The Movement Characterised (§ 1). Leibnitz and the Pietists (§ 2). Kant's Transcendentalism (§ 3). Lessing, Herder, and Others (§ 4). Goethe, Schiller, and Others (§ 5).

I. Various Types of Idealism: In metaphysics idealism, as the opposite of materialism (q.v.), is the doctrine that ultimate reality is of the nature of mind, or thought content; in epistemology it is the view that knowledge is merely subjective, i.e., limited to ideas and states of mind. The terns is also employed in art, where it denotes an effort to realize the highest types of natural objects by eliminating all defects peculiar to individual speci­mens. In its popular acceptation idealism repre­sents an imaginative treatment of subjects and a striving after perfection. Plato was the earliest representative of metaphysical idealism. Dissenting from the view of Heraclitus that everything is in a state of flux and flow, he formulated, in the interest of ethics, his doctrine of eternal unchanging ideas. These ideas, or incorporeal essences, exist objectively in a supersensuous world and form the background and basis of the ever changing phe­nomenal world. Reality is not inherent in the in­dividual object, as, for instance, a horse or a tree, but in the general idea of horse or tree. The highest idea is the idea of the Good  a self realizing end.

In modern philosophy at least three kinds of metaphysical idealism are distinguished, viz., sub­jective idealism, objective idealism, and absolute idealism. The first is represented by Fichte, who found the source of the object, or external world, in a universal subject or ego. Starting with this universal ego he regarded its antithesis, the non­ego, which is created by the ego, as an obstacle

low, the altar was not hidden until pillars were

placed before it and curtains were used. The

iconostasis became more and more frequent as the

Greek service increased in symbolism. Thus orig­

inated the modern templon, which is generally a

latticed screen, more or less gilded, with three doors,

the middle and largest of which is called the royal

and opens toward the altar. This screen is deo­

orated with pictures,, and hence derives its name

(Gk. eikonoatasis, " picture place "). The pictures

are usually four in number, one representing the

saint in whose honor the church is dedicated; the

second representing Mary; the third Christ; and

the fourth John the Baptist They are impressive,

are painted on a gold background, are often gor­

geously set with jewels or paste, and are brightly

illuminated by the lights and lamps placed or sus­

pended before them. The so called " Painters'

Book of Mt. Athos " (2d ed., Athens, 1885) gives

technical directions for the production of these


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Symeon of Thessalonica, Heel ro'v ayiov vao v, in MPG, clv.; Nicholas of Bulgaria, sarftnoLc iepa, Venice, 1681; H. Brockhaus, Die Kunst in den Atkos­Kl6stern, Leipsic, 1891.


Early Views of Fichte and Schelling ($ 6).

Romanticism (§ 7).

Later Views of Fichte and Schelling (§ 8).

Hegel's system (§ 9).

Sehleiermacher (§ 10).

Herbert (§ 11). Schopenhauer (§ 12).1 Idealism in the Positive Sciences (§ 13).

III. English and Amerioan~Idealism. Early Phases (§ 1). _ Modern Idealism (§ 2).

necessary to the realization of the intelligent and ethical self. The ego (not the phenomenal self, but the universal self common to all finite selves) sets up an object as a limit, but only to transcend it, thus giving free play to its own activity. This is done in the successive stages of knowledge, begin­ning with sensation and ending with moral percep­tion. Fichte's thought is ethical, and in his view nature exists only as material for the realization of duty. Since his system describes what ought to be, rather than what is, he called it practical idealism. If all limiting non egos, including that of finitude, could be actually transcended, the universal self then attained to would be God. The term objective idealism may be applied to any system of meta­physics that recognizes a spiritual reality existing independent of a conscious subject (Plato, Leibnitz, Herbart, etc.); but this term has usually been reserved to describe.the system of Schelling. By combining Fichte's doctrine of the universal ego with the Spinozistio idea of a neutral basis of all existence, Schelling developed his system of identity. In the Absolute object and subject, the real,and the ideal, nature and spirit, are identical. This original undifferentiated unity, which is perceived by intellectual intuition, breaks up into the polar opposites of object and subject, nature and spirit, negative or positive being. Though the subjective and objective phases of being are always coexistent in the phenomenal world, in pronsciousness there is a preponderance of the subjective, while in nature,



the negative pole of being, there is a preponderance of the objective. Hegel is the originator and greatest representative of absolute idealism. Ac­cording to this metaphysical doctrine, existence is not only spiritual, but it is a single, all inclusive (therefore absolute), self conscious being, which manifests itself as nature and spirit. In this view phenomena are neither subjective products, nor copies, nor effects, of a transcendent reality, but are parts of the living reality itself. They are phe­nomena per se, and exist objectively as the thought­content of the absolute mind, or Absolute Idea, to use Hegel's expression. The phenomenal world, therefore, is the real world, and there is no other world. With Hegel existence is rational through­out; and, indeed, the entire process of history is only the self unfolding of the one universal divine reason. Absolute idealism has now almost com­pletely vanished from German speculation, though it has gained a strong foothold in English and American thought. Prominent representatives of the doctrine are F. H. Bradley and Joaiah I1,Oy08.

In its epistemologicalreference idealism is the

opposite of realism. While the realist asserts that

we have knowledge of an external reality, the ideal­

ist maintains that we can know only phenomena

or ideas in the sense of Locke. If the idealist denies

the existence of such an external reality,, holding

that ideas are only modifications of the mind, he

becomes a subjective idealist in the epistemologi­

cal sense. If he be consistent, he will deny the

existence of other persons than himself and become

a solipsist; for in his view such persons could exist

only as ideas in consciousness. Perhaps the nearest

approach to such a view was made by Bishop

Berkeley, who held, though not consistently, that

esse is percipi. If the idealist admits that phe­

nomena are not purely subjective, that they have a

certain problematical existence, he becomes a cos­

mothetic idealist. Descartes, Kant, and most

English philosophers have been coemothetic ideal­

ists. HUHzRT EvANs.

Il. German Idealism: By German Idealism is meant that phase of intellectual life that had its

origin in the Enlightenment (q.v.), as i. The modified by German conditions. Eng

!love  lish and French representatives of the

went Char  Enlightenment, giving precedence to

acterlze& sensation, had become empiricists and

skeptics. They viewed the world as a great mechanism, adopted hedonism as their ethics, and interpreted history from a subjective­oritical point of view. The situation in Germany was just the reverse. There thought was given precedence over sensation; and, instead of em­piricism, idealism was dominant. Ethics was based upon norms of universal validity, instead of upon individual whim; history was interpreted genetically as a rational progress; and for the mechanical con­ception of the world the organic, or dynamic, view was substituted. Nature was seen to be spiritual, as well as spatial, and was interpreted teleologically. In the hands of Jacobi and Kant Hume's skep­ticism became the weapon that destroyed the in­fluence of empiricism. and thus paved the way for idealism. For the Germans, at least, Rousseau's

radicalism brought into question the value of the culture ideals of the Enlightenment, and impelled them to seek the basis of culture in the creative power of the mind. For the philosopher German idealism usually means the philosophy of Kant and his immediate followers, while for the histo­risu of literature it may mean little more than the personality of Goethe; and it is not unusual to characterize the literary aspect of the movement as neo Humanism. However, there is a unity in the movement that cannot be ignored; and all its varied manifestations, whether in science, phil­osophy, literature, art, or, social life, are properly treated under the title " German Idealism."

Several factors contributed to give the Enlight­enment in Germany its peculiarly independent

character; but notable was the in­s. Leibnitz fluence of Leibnitz, and that of the

and the Pietists. Leibnitz was an essentially Pietists. religious personality, and in trans 

planting the spirit of the Enlighten­ment into Germany he imparted to it that dis­tinctively ethical and religious flavor which became characteristic of German Idealism: It was he who was chiefly instrumental in substituting the teleo­logical for the mechanical view of nature. He transformed the atoms of the materialists into monads, or psychical entities, and substituted for natural law his theory of preestablished harmony. He asserted the absolute worth of the individual against the. destructive monism of Spinoza, and saw in the progress of history a movement of the monads toward some divine end. On the one hand, he made the development of materialism and skep­ticism impossible in Germany, and, on the other hand, he brought about the teleological explanation of the history of the univerbe as a whole. The teleological and idealistic tendencies of Leibnitz were strengthened through Pietism (q.v.). Klop­stock, Herder; Jacobi, Goethe, and Jean Paul, all betray in their works the Pietistic influence.

The conceptual framework of German Idealism was provided by Immanuel Kant (q.v.), who was

the first to reconcile the conflicting 3. Kant's empirical and rationalistic elements of

Tranacen  the prevailing dogmatic philosophy.

dentalism With one stroke he secured for mind

priority over nature, and yet without endangering in the least the validity of the prin­ciples of scientific investigation; and, by giving the primacy to the practical reason, he placed religion and ethics on a sure footing and broke the ban of rationalism. In the first instance Kant's work was purely epistemological. He made it par­ticularly his problem to rescue natural science front the (epistemological) skepticism of Hume, and then to rescue religion from rationalism. It was Kant who utterly demolished the rationalistic arguments of Anselm, Descartes, and others, for the existence of God. Science is valid, but it has to do only with phenomena. This phenomenal world, however, is produced a priori by the activity of consciousness, reacting upon that external reality whose nature cannot be known. The very fact that the world as we know it is only the sum total of phenomena accounts for the constancy of experience, and. is


the basis of the universal validity of certain prin­ciples of explanation. Space and time, and the categories of the understanding are subjective, ideal. Taken together they form a mold in which we shape the impressions coming from the tran­scendent reality. Thus, the principles of science and the laws of nature are universally valid because they are in the subject, not in the object. Knowledge of ultimate reality comes through the practical reason, particularly through the a priori moral, law in us. Kant's idea of inner freedom became the inspira­tion of the creative genius. The phase of German Idealism manifested in the art and poetry of the period has been called esthetic ethical idealism. The leaders of this artistic movement, who really popularized idealism and made it part of the life of the time, were not intent upon solving the old philosophical problems. For conceptual thought they substituted the creative imagination:

Klopstock and Wieland mark the turning point toward idealism, though their oontempotary,

Leasing, was the first representative of

4. Leasing, the movement to liberate himself com­Herder, pletely from conventional theology and

and Others, all that was arbitrary and external in German culture and find in the inner esthetic and ethical development of the mind the ideal to be followed. Idealism in the sense in which the word is here used became even more effective in the work of Herder., His break with the En­lightenment was complete. In his large application of the idealistic method to the interpretation of science, art, and history, he practically reformed all the intellectual sciences. He, too, proceeded from an analysis of the poetic and artistic impulse, and in the creative activity of the mind he found the key to ethics, esthetics, and religion. From this subjective, or idealistic, view point he saw the pan­orama of history as a spiritualistic development. If Leming's great work was to introduce idealism into esthetics, particularly the esthetics of dramatic poetry, Herder's greatest service to the idealistic cause was his application of idealism, as a method, to the interpretation of history: What Wieland, Leasing, and others had done for poetic art, this Winckelmann did for plastic art. He too found in the conception of the free creative mind the basis of ethics, esthetics, and religion.

The great representatives of the idealistic type of mind in German poetry were Goethe and Schiller.

Against the exclusive claims of the

g. Goethe, esthetic view of nature, and a morality

Schiller, essentially classical, Goethe emphasised

tad Others. the moral and religious worth of the individual, thus approaching the rig­orous ethical. teachings of Kant. Schiller combined the epistemology of Kant with the pantheism of Goethe. With him esthetic values were the chief types of intellectual norms; and his ethics and religion might be regarded as a phase of esthetics. However, the esthetic harmony that he found in the universe reacted on his ethical and religious nature; and, despite his esthetic view point, he must be classed with Kant and Fichte as one of the great moral ,teachers of Germany. Schiller's only ooasistent follower was Wilhelm von Humboldt,

who was instrumental in bringing about the neo­Humanistic reform, on the basis of the new esthetio­ethical culture. Jean Paul was a brilliant repre­sentative of the anti classical type of idealism.

The basis of the eathetio ethical movement was Kant's transcendental idealism; but, while Kant had made the idealistic position seem,

6. Early he had not accounted for the reality of

Views of the world of nature, with all that it

Fichte and means to the poet as the expression of Schelling. some divine purpose. In order to get at the bottom of the matter it was felt that the human consciousness as a starting point would have to be abandoned and an absolute con­sciousness posited, from which reality could be deduced in a manner analogous to that employed by Kant for human consciousness. The first to attempt such a comprehensive solution of the problem was Johann Gottlieb Fichte (q.v.). Starting from Kant's idealistic position he endeavored to overcome the dualism involved in Kant's doctrine of a " thing in itself " by bringing this mysterious reality into consciousness. To do this he dropped the Kpatian distinction between the practical and the theoretioal reason, and conceived of the absolute mind, or ego, as the moral reason. In his view all existence is psychical, and the human mind is only a manifesta­tion of the absolute ego. Thus, the last trace of a transcendent reality is obliterated. The absolute ego has divided itself into a large number of relative egos, and through these it is moving progressively toward its own destiny. The core of reality lies in human personality, in the finite mind, but this is caught up in an endless process of development; and; hence, in order to transcend his own con­sciousness and explain the progress of history, with reference to the past and the future, the philosopher must look at existence from the point of view of the absolute ego. In this way Fichte developed his subjective idealism, bringing into this scheme of idealistic evolution every phase of human experience. Under his treatment ethiae, sociology, esthetics, and religion become a part of the history of the Absolute. The dualism between mind and nature be overcame by dissolving nature in mind. Schelling, starting from the Kant Fichte point of view, extended the conception of the Abso­lute to objective nature. His system may be char aeterized as a sort of spirituslized pantheism. The world is a continuous process from inorganic un­conscious nature to organic conscious nature, and then from organic nature back to inorganic nature.. 'While in man the Absolute reaches consciousness, nature remains essentially objective, but not in a materialistic sense, of course. Nature with Schelling is a system of spiritual forces similar to the monads of Leibnitz. Extending to the absolute conscious­ness the view that in consciousness subject and object are identical, Schelling worked out his so called Idemitdtsphz'loaophie. The sum total of existence then becomes the Absolute as perceived by itself. Naturally all distinctions and qualities, which are created by a finite relational consoious­nesa, disappear in this self contemplation of the Absolute by itself, and existence become, neutral: If Fichte had interpreted existence ethically, 8ohel.


ling interprets it esthetically. While with Fichte the Absolute distributes himself in finite minds in order to work out his own moral development, with Schelling the Absolute comes to consciousness in man in order that man may enjoy the esthetic con­templation of the unity of mind and ,nature, the identity of mind with its sensuous content.

The immediate result of the metaphysical systems of Fichte and Schelling was that revival of poetic production and criticism known as

y. Roman  Romanticism, which sprang from the

ticism. school of Goethe and Schiller. The

union of poesy with the metaphysical,

or religious, view of life became a recognized prin­

ciple of art; and it was this combination that secured

for idealism the final triumph over the narrow

naturalism and rationalism of the Enlightenment.

Romanticism brought to light the connection of

poetry with Christianity. Just as Schiller had taken

Kant's epistemology as a basis for the explanation

of the relation of esthetics to ethics, so now the

Kantian position was utilized to explain the rela­

tion of religion to esthetics. Thus, from Kant's

idealism came a new analysis of religion; illuminating

with a new light the problems of culture. Roman­

ticism gave breadth and depth to the historical

view and dissolved into thin air those time worn

conceptions of a "law of nature," " common sense,"

and innate norms of the reason, just as formerly the

Enlightenment had disposed of the idea of a super­

natural, ecclesiastical norm, which rested upon

these conceptions. The leading spirits in the

romantic movement were the two Schlegels, though

Fichte, Schleiermacher, Hegel, Schelling, Novalis,

and many others took a part in it. Out of Roman­

ticism sprang a new impulse for systematic thinking;

and through the political catastrophes of the time

and the moral earnestness of the intellectual leaders,

idealistic speculation was forced to apply its norms

to practical social problems.

The first to feel the pressure of the realistio his­torical problems were the founders of metaphysical idealism, Fichte and Schelling. Both

& Later betray the influence of Schleiermacher.

Views of Realizing the inadequacy of their phi 

Fichte and losophy to meet practical needs, they

ScheMng. now sought an ethical and religious

ideal which should unify the concrete

content of spiritual life and at the same time be a

necessary deduction from the metaphysical back­

ground of existence. Fichte retained his idea of the

moral state as the consummation of the historical

process, but he no longer considered this state

merely as a postulate of progressive freedom, but

as a concrete civilized state, in which all members

of society share in the blessings of religion, morality,

and art. In this remodeled view of Fichte religion

is dominant; for he finds that only religious faith

makes possible the realization of the moral idea,

and thus the reality of the external world. The

world is ethical. It is religious faith that gives an

ultimate aim to ethical conduct, that makes possible

a union of the empirical ego with its metaphysical

basis, i.e., God. His ethics is thus deprived of its

formal character as an endless progress and given

a definite aim. This ethical and religious view

necessitates a modification of his metaphysics. The background of empirical consciousness is no longer an endless progression of the Absolute, but a fixed and unchanging divine being. In this being the empirical ego has its, origin, and through ethical conduct it returns to its source. Similarly, in view of moral and esthetic needs, Schelling was forced to change his views.. In apply­ing the principle of identity he had destroyed all the manifold variety of existence, and thus its reality; and in describing the universe as a quality­less neutrum he had only caricatured the Absolute. His philosophy was belied by every phase of ex­perience. Just as Fichte, so Schelling sought in religion the key to the origin and destiny of man. The phenomenal world takes its rise in the absolute, self determined will of God, and, on account of its origin, it necessarily works, its way up to God again. This movement back to God is a religious progress, through mythology, or natural religion, up to Chris­tianity, at which stage the union of man with God takes place. Thus, Christianity, whose dogmas are interpreted evolutionistically by Schelling, becomes the end and purpose of history; and it is upon Christianity that ethics, politics, and esthetics are to be based.

If Fichte and Schelling had endeavored to find the purpose of existence in some concrete content, say the moral state, or the Christian g. Hegel's religion, deducing this content from

System. the conception of God, Hegel solved

the problem by a systematic and

logical exploitation of the conception of evolution,

which with him was both a constituent and a teleo­

logical principle. The conception had been variously

and obscurely employed by Leibnitz, Lessing, Kant,

Herder, Goethe, Schiller, and F. Schlegel. Then,

on the basis of Kant's .transcendental deduction,

Fichte and Schelling interpreted the process of

development in a purely idealistic manner as the

unconscious opposition of the Absolute to itself,

and the conscious and gradual removal of this

opposition by self absorption, the double process

following necessarily from the very nature of mind.

Hegel makes the impulse of the absolute mind a

gradual and self determined process, by which the

Absolute lifts itself from mere possibility and

actuality to conscious, free, and necessary possession.

Viewed cub specie aternitatia the whole process is

timeless, and only to a finite mind does it appear as

an endless procession in time and space. However,

it is just in this finite view that the ethical, esthetic,

and religious character of Hegel's philosophy man­

ifests itself. In the finite consciousness there is a

separation of the natural, the actual, and the em­

pirical from the spiritual, the free, and the necessary.

In the unity reached by overcoming this divoroe­

ment of the finite from the infinite lies religious

blessedness, perfect beauty, and moral freedom.

Every phase and stage of this inner teleological

development is necessary to the life of the Absolute,

and all variety in finite experience is preserved in

the higher unity. Nothing is lost. Instead of being

an undifferentiated substance, or a qualityless

neutrum, the Absolute is the living, vital reality

that manifests itself in human experience. This


reality is spiritual, and the guiding principle of its upward movement is the fulfilment of its own divine purpose, which is religious, ethical, esthetic. Religion and ethics are thus a necessary product of the self explication of the Absolute, or God.

The religious turn that idealistic metaphysics had taken was due directly, or indirectly, to the

influence of Schleiermacher, the most ro. Schleier  specifically religious of all the great

macher. philosophers. In his own system be

made use of the religious consciousness in an original and striking manner to solve the practical and theoretical problems growing out of Kant's critical philosophy. In the field of ethics he was the most conspicuous exponent of German idealism. What Hegel had deduced from the Abso­lute by his application of the conception of develop­ment, Schleiermacher, following the critical method of Kant, sought to attain by an analysis of empirical consciousness. In its theoretical attitude toward being, consciousness is receptive and seeks to com­bine the data of sense into the highest possible con­ceptual unity; in its practical attitude consciousness is active and transfers the aim of reason from the world of sense to the world of conscious freedom. However, in both cases thought and being always remain separate for the finite understanding. On the other hand, that essential unity of reality which makes possible any relation of thought to being, such as volition to being, is present in religious feeling. While Hegel had employed a deductive, dialectical method to show that all being is in God, Schleiermacher reached this unity by an inductive process, which was guided by feeling, instead of by pure reason. Instead of starting with a timeless and apacelcss Absolute, he started with the phenom­enal world. His task was to analyze the reason that dominates the actual world of history, to bring to light its various purposes, combine them into a total­ity representing the absolute divine purpose of the universe, the summum bonum, and to show that the power to realize this ideal lies in religious conscious­ness. Schleiermacher's practical religious interests now took him into the field of theology. For his religious philosophy see SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIED­RICH ERNST DANIEL.

Herbart stuck even more closely to the Kantian view point, but, like other followers of Kant, he

sought to eliminate the conception of ii. Herbart. an unknowable reality, and press for 

ward to the ultimate nature of things. He adopted Kant's analysis of consciousness, but in a psychological sense, and found that the tran­scendental reality consists of a plurality of simple substances. These he called " reals." They are psychical in nature and analogous to the monads of Leibnitz. Through their relations to one another and to human consciousness the phenomenal world is brought into existence; and from their teleological cooperation Herbart deduces a divine, creative intelligence, analogous to the Monad­monadum of Leibnitz, thus opposing sharply cur­rent poetic naturalism and Spinozism. Herbart's practical and, social philosophy, which is based upon the judments of the soul as to the relations of the " reals " to each other, particularly upon

judgments expressing like or dislike, also tends toward rationalism. On account of the method employed here, Herbart calls the result esthetics, to which he subordinates ethics. In his view the ideal society Would be one based upon the insight and activity of the educated, and upon the rational education of youth, and realizing in its organization the natural and fundamental ethical ideas. Herbert thus became not only a reformer of psychology, but of pedagogy as well.

The last great representative of German Idealism in systematic philosophy was Schopenhauer. While with him the phenomenal world is

is. Schop. ideal, i.e., existing only as a subjective

enhauer. idea, its objective basis is not a " thing

in itself," as Kant taught, but a univer­

sal will. This Schopenhaugr interprets as a blind,

illogical, aimless impulse, without any original

ethical tendency whatsoever. Through the blind

impulse of this world will arises human intelligence

and the phenomenal world. History loses all tel­

eological significance and becomes an irrational

and endless progression. Ethics, therefore, as the

philosophy of the ultimate purpose of the world,

can only proclaim the aimlessness of the cosmical

process and seek to put an end to it by stilling the

will. This quietizing of the will is effected by r6cog­

nizing the aimlessness of the process and resign­

ing oneself to incompletely. For these teachings

Schopenhauer found a support in Buddhism, which

was then just becoming known in the Occident.

He was bitter in his hatred of what he thought the

selfishness and sensuality of Judaism, in which he

found the roots of deceptive theism. The pure

Christianity of Christ he regarded as a sort of

mystical quietism. Though his metaphysical work,

Die Welt ala WiUe and Vorstellung, appeared as early

as 1819, his teachings found no popular reception

till after the wane of Hegel's influence is Germany.

The effects of this idealistic development are apparent in the positive sciences not less than in metaphysics. In accordance with the

i3.Ideal  idea of the oneness of the world, the

ism in the natural sciences have been given a Positive subordinate position, or else reduced

Sciences. to natural philosophy. The new spirit

is manifested even more~clearly in the

historical sciences, where the genetic method is

everywhere employed and individual facts are

treated in relation to the whole development. For

instance, the historian of literature or art now seeks

to bring the facts with which he is dealing into

relation with other phases of life and thus grasp

the life and ideals of a nation as a whole. Similarly,

the philologist is no longer satisfied with the study

of one language, but seeks to correlate it with

kindred tongues and reconstruct the inner life of

the people. Even in the field of jurisprudence the

genetic method has been adopted and particular

stress laid on the development of common law.

The effect of this idealistic movement may also be

observed in theology. Here deistic efforts to base

Christianity on a general theory of religion have

been replaced by a more penetrating psychological

analysis, together with a genetic view of religious

history; though it should be added that repeated



and earnest attempts have been made to rescue the core of Cjtristianity from the general flux of history and give to it a fixed character. Since it is in the universities, chiefly, that the sciences are cultivated, naturally the universities have been reorganised in conformity to the changed ideals. It was in the University of Jena that German Idealism got its first foothold. From here the new educational ideal went forth to the newly established universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, Bonn, Breslau, and Munich, and into the secondary schools. The effect of this reform has been to rescue philosophy from its servile position in the faculty of liberal arts and give it the position of that pure and true science which determines the principles of all other science, whether theoretical or practical.

(E. TsomnTecH.)

Ill. English and American Idealism: In Great Britain the earlier' representatives of Idealism were Ralph Cudworth, Samuel Clarks, and George Berkeley (qq.v.). Cudworth, one of the Cam­bridge PlatonisU (cj.v.), in opposition to the sen­sualistic philosophy of Hobbes, in his True In­tellectual System of the Universe (1878), maintained

that the human mind participates in

:. Early the archetypal ideas which are eter 

Phases. nal in the mind of God; by divine il 

lumination these ideas are quickened in the soul. Clarke's idealism appears in his fa­mous argument for the being of God, based upon innate conceptions 'of space and time, of being, of necessary existence, and of the infinite (Demon­stration of the Being and Attributes of (Sod, 1705), and in his doctrine of the absolute right the " eternal fitness of things "derived from his Goo­trine of God (The Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion, 1708). Berkeley affirmed that all ideas are only states or motions of the . spirit. So called material properties have no existence outside of the spirits in which the perception arises; accordingly, the universe consists only of spirits and their ideas. The source of these' ideas is God, by whom they are impartially and immutably created (Selections from Berkeley's Works, edited by A. C. Fraser, London, 1891). In America dur­ing this period, Idealism found a voice in Jonathan Edwards (1758). In his Notes on the Mind, penned ere he bad reached early manhood, is a doctrine of the world quite in the spirit of Berkeley, although not dependent on him, which in sole aspects an­ticipates the absolute idealism of Hegel. " The material universe exists nowhere but in the mind." "All material existence is only in idea." "That which truly is the substance of all bodies is the in­finitely exact,. and prise, and perfectly stable Idea, in God's mind, together with his stable will, that the same shall gradually be communicated to us, and to other minds, according to certain fixed and established Methods and Laws" (Notes $4, 40, 13, in his Works, New York, 1830).

In recent thought Idealism has well nigh sup­planted other forms of interpretation, of the world. The point of view is that "mind hs the impor­tance of a universal and coemical principle of real­ity." The field is, however, divided into various sections. (1) As applied to epistemology or the

grounds upon which our thought of reality is shown to be valid, the principal representatives are

B. P. Bowne (Theory of Thought and 2. Modern Knowledge, New York, 1897) and Idealism. G. T. Ladd (Philosophy of Knowledge,

New York, 1897). (2) In metaphysics, F.H. Bradley (A ppearaxceand Reality, London, 1897) holds that all finite things of every variety are in the last analysis unreal, yet these are aspects of the one Absolute, and it or he is their reality. J. Royce (The World arid the Individual; 2 vols:, New York, 1900 01) presents the ultimate reality as the " internal mete of an idea." In agree­ment with Royce, A. lJ. Taylor (Elements of Mda­physies, New York, 1907) declares that the Abso­lute is a conscious life which simultaneously and in perfect unity includes in its experience the totality of existence, i.e., existence is ultimately mental. (3) In the philosophy of religion treated from the idealistic point of view, the principal writers are J. Caird (Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, Glasgow, 1880), with profound reliance upon Hegel's great work on the same subject, and G. T. Ladd (Philosophy of Religion, New York, 1905). (4) In ethics, in which the end is presented as realisation of the rational self, the more significant works,are those by F. H. Bradley, Ethical Studies (London, 1876); T. H. Green, Prolegomena to Ethics (ib. 1883); J. H. Muirhead, Elements of Ethics (ib. 1892); J. 8. Mackenzie, Manual of Ethics (4th ed., New York, 1901);   G. H. Palmer, Field of Ethics (Boston, 1901); idem, Nature of Goodness (ib. 1904); G. T. Ladd, Philosophy of Conduct (New York, 1902), and J. Royce, Philosophy of Loyally (ib.1908). (5) As an interpretative principle as ap­plied to the history of religion and especially to the development of Christian doctrine, vindicating the rational element in these, against the denial of the same in a proposed return to the simplicity of the Gospel on the one hand, and on the other against the principle of external authority, the reader is referred to E. Caird, Evolution of Religion (Glasgow, 1893) and Evolution of Theology in the (reek Philosophers (ib. 1900 02)., end J. Watson, Philosophical Basis of Religion (lb. 1907).

C. A. B.

BanrsoaanrsT: The beet means for a study of Idealism, outside the works of the individual philosophers, are the treatises on the history of philosophy, suoh an: E. Zeiler, Die Philosophic Gar liriechea, TObingen, 1844, new ed., 1892, Eng. tranal., 2 vols., London, 1897; W. Windelband, tleeckidds der PhilowpW Freiburg, 1890 92, Eng. transl., New York, 1898; J. E. Erdmann, GadsichRS der Phi­losophic, 2 vole., Berlin, 1896 98, Ena. tnansl., 8 vols., London, 1891 98; F. Ueberweg, Geecbichk der Philosophic, $th ed. by Heinse, Berlin, 1903 05, Eng. tranal. of 4th ed., London, 1875 78. Consult further: C: L. Hendewerk, Der Idealiamus des ChristinAwiw, Konigsberg, 1882; A. Grant, in Porlniphtly Review, aR (1871), 383 374; H. Tame, History of Enplieh Literatwe, London, 1877; T. Carlyle, Characteristics, in his Works, London, 1882; W. L. Davidson, in Mind, siii (1888): 89 98; J. Wedg­wood, Ideals of Life, New York, 1888; A. Bioardqu, De 1' idfia1, Paris, 1891; A. Drewe, Deatuhe $pekulatim sail Rant, Leipsio, 189,3; R. Euolrm li'rrundbeprite der Gemn­wart, ib., 1893; idem, Lehensanwiauunpms der prossen Denbor, ib., 1899; M. Pujo, L'Id6diesse inUlr4 Paris, 1894; J. Mors, Erropean. Thought in the 18th Centwy. 2 voles, Edinburgh, 1898 1903; C. Benouvier, InbWudio» d la philwophia analytiqw de r hietoire, Paris, 1898; idem, Philoaophie analytiew de 1'hisAviro, vols. iii. iv., ib., 18P7:


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