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aqua adv. "fully, completely, altogether, wholly" (WJ:392) aquapahtië - Quettaparma Quenyallo


aqua

adv. "fully, completely, altogether, wholly" (WJ:392)

aquapahtië

noun "privacy" (literally *"fully-closedness", of a mind that closes itself against telepathic transfers) (VT39:23)

[

aquet

noun? vb? ”answer” (PE17:166)]

ar

(1) conj. "and" (AR2, SA, FS, Nam, RGEO:67, CO, LR:47, 56, MC:216, VT43:31, VT44:10, 34; see VT47:31 for etymology, cf. also VT49:25, 40). The older form of the conjunction was

az

(PE17:41).

Ar

is often assimilated to

al

,

as

before

l

,

s

(PE17:41, 71), but “in written Quenya ar was usually written in all cases” (PE17:71). In one case, Tolkien altered the phrase

ar larmar

“and garments” to

al larmar

; the former may then be seen as representing the spelling, whereas the latter represents the pronunciation (PE17:175). More complex schemes of assimilation are suggested to have existed in “Old Quenya”, the conjunction varying between

ar

,

a

and

as

depending on the following consonant (PE17:41, 71). An alternative longer form of the conjunction,

arë

, is said to occur "occasionally in Tolkien's later writings" (VT43:31, cf. VT48:14). In the Etymologies, the word for "and" was first written as

ar

(

a

) (VT45:6). – In one source, Tolkien notes that Quenya used

ar

“as preposition beside, next, or as adverb = and(PE17:145); compare

ara

.

ar

(2) noun "day" (PE17:148), apparently short for

árë

, occurring in the names of the Valinorean week listed below. Tolkien indicated that

ar

in these names could also be

arë

when the following element begins in a consonant (VT45:27). Usually the word for "day" in LotR-style Quenya is rather

aurë

(or

), q.v.

Ar Fanturion

noun *"Day of the Fanturi (Mandos and Lorien)" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK). Also

Arë Fanturion

(VT45:27).

Ar Manwen

noun *"Day of Manwe" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -

n

.) Also

Arë Manwen

(VT45:27).

Ar Ulmon

noun *"Day of Ulmo" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -

n

.)

Ar Veruen

noun *"Day of the Spouses" (Aule and Yavanna) (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -

n

.) Also

Arë Veruen

(VT45:27).

ar

- (1) prefix "outside" (AR2), element meaning "beside" (VT42:17), “by” (PE17:169; in the same source the glosses “near, by, beside” were rejected). Cf.

ara

.

ar

- (2), also

ari

-, prefix for superlative (compare

arya

#1, 2), hence

arcalima

“brightest”,

arimelda

*”dearest” (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix

an

- rather expressed “very” or “exceedingly” with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkien’s work. See

an

- #2,

am

- #2.

ára

noun "dawn" (AR1). According to VT45:6,

ára

is also the name of the long vowel carrier of the Tengwar system; it would be the first letter of the word

ára

if spelt in Tengwar.

ara

prep.(and adv.?) "outside, beside, besides" (AR2, VT49:57). According to VT45:6, the original glosses were "without, outside, beside", but Tolkien emended this.

Arsë

“he is out”, VT49:23, 35, 36. As for

ar

(

a

), see

ar

#1. – VT49:25 lists what seems to be

ar

(

a

) combined with various pronominal suffixes: Singular

anni

>

arni

*”beside me”,

astyë

*“beside you” (informal),

allë

*“besides you” (formal),

arsë

*”beside him/her”, plural

anwë

>

armë

*“beside us” (exclusive),

arwë

*“beside us” (inclusive),

astë

>

ardë

*“beside you” (plural),

astë

>

artë

*“beside them”; dual

anwet

>

armet

*“beside us (two)”. (Here Tolkien presupposes that

ara

represents original ada-.) The same source lists the unglossed forms

ari

,

arin

that may combine the preposition with the article, hence *“beside the” (VT49:24-25)

Ara

-,

ar

- a prefixed form of the stem

Ara

- "noble" (PM:344). In the masc. names

Aracáno

"high chieftain", mothername (amilessë, q.v.) of Fingolfin (PM:360, cf. 344),

Arafinwë

"Finarfin" (MR:230)

Araman

place-name "outside Aman", name of a region (SA:ar, mān)

aran

noun "king"; pl.

arani

(WJ:369, VT45:16, PE17:186); gen.pl.

aranion

"of kings" in

asëa aranion

, q.v.;

aranya

*"my king" (

aran

+

nya

) (UT:193).

Aran Meletyalda

"king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369);

aran Ondórëo

, “a king of Gondor” (VT49:27). Also in

arandil

"king's friend, royalist",

arandur

"king's servant, minister" (Letters:386);

Arantar

masc. name, *"King-Lord" (Appendix A);

Arandor

"Kingsland" region in Númenor (UT:165); the long form

Arandórë

appears as a name of Arnor in PE17:28 (elsewhere

Arnanórë

, q.v.) Other compounds

ingaran

,

Noldóran

,

Núaran

, q.v.

aranel

noun "princess" (likely *

aranell

-) (UT:434)

#

aranië

noun "kingdom" (

aranielya

"thy kingdom") (VT43:15). Cf. #

aranyë

in

Ardaranyë

“the Kingdom of Arda” (PE17:105)

aranus

(#

aranuss

-), also

aranussë

, noun “kingship” (PE17:155)

Aranwë

masc. name *"Kingly Person" (Silm);

Aranwion

patronymic "son of Aranwë" (UT:50 cf. 32)

aranya

, also

ranya

, adj. "free". Another gloss was not certainly legible, but the editors suggest "uncontrolling" (VT46:10)

#

aranyë

noun “kingdom”, isolated from

Ardaranyë

“the Kingdom of Arda” (PE17:105)

Aratan

masc. name *"Noble Adan" (Silm)

arata

adj. “high, lofty, noble” (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form

Aratar

"the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word

Máhani

adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402).

Aratarya

"her sublimity";

Varda Aratarya

"Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source,

Aratar

is translated as a singular: “High One” (PE17:186)

arato

noun “a noble” (PE17:147), in PE17:118 given as

arat

ō

and there glossed “lord” (often = “king”). Cf.

aráto

. The form cited in the latter source,

arat

ō

with a long final vowel, is evidently very archaic (compare Enderō under

Ender

); later the vowel would become short. (PE17:118)

aráto

noun "champion, eminent man" (SA:ar(a) )

arauca

("k") adj. "swift, rushing" (LT2:347). Compare

arauco

.

arauco

("k") noun "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature; demon" (variant of

rauco

). Tolkien's earlier "Qenya" has

araucë

"demon" (WJ:415, LT1:250)

arca

(1) adj. “narrow” (AK)

arca

- (2) vb. "pray" (VT43:23, cf. VT44:8, 18); evidently this basically means "to petition" or “to ask for”, compare

arcandë

below.

#

arcandë

noun "petition" (isolated from

arcandemmar

"our petitions") (VT44:8)

Arciryas

masc. name (evidently derived from *

arcirya

"royal ship") (Appendix A)

arda

noun "realm" (GAR under 3AR). It is said that

arda

, when used as a common noun, "meant any more or less bounded or defined place, a region" (WJ:402), or "a particular land or region" (WJ:413). Capitalized

Arda

"the Realm", name of the Earth as the kingdom of Manwë (Silm), "the name given to our world or earth...within the immensity of Eä" (Letters:283, there again rendered “realm”), “our planet” (MR:39), once translated "Earth" (SD:246). In a wider sense,

Arda

can refer to the entire Solar System (MR:337). Also name of tengwa #26 (Appendix E). Masc. name

Ardamírë

"Jewel of the World" (PM:348), shorter form

Ardamir

(UT:210);

Ardaranyë

“the Kingdom of Arda” (PE17:105)

ardë

prep. with pron. suffix *”beside you” (pl), changed from

astë

(VT49:25). See

ara

.

arë

conj. "and", longer form of

ar

, q.v. (VT43:31)

árë

noun "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight" (SA:arien). Stem

ári

- (PE17:126, where the word is further defined as “warmth, especially of the sun, sunlight”). Also name of tengwa #31; cf. also

ar

# 2. Originally pronounced

ázë

; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became superfluous and was given the new value

ss

, hence it was re-named

essë

(Appendix E). Also

árë nuquerna

*"árë reversed", name of tengwa #32, similar to normal

árë

but turned upside down (Appendix E). See also

ilyázëa

,

ilyárëa

under

ilya

. – In the Etymologies, this word has a short initial vowel:

arë

pl.

ari

(AR1)

Arfanyaras

,

Arfanyarassë

place-name, a "variant or close equivalent" of

Taniquetil

(WJ:403)

arië

noun "daytime" (AR1)

Arien

fem. name "the Sun-maiden", the Maia of the Sun (AR1; Silm); cf.

árë

"sunlight"

ari

,

arin

prep. *”beside the”? See

ara

.

arin

noun "morning" (AR1)

arinya

adj. "morning" in the adjectival sense (e.g. *

arinya árë

"morning sun") and hence "early" (AR1, VT45:6)

arma

(1) noun “a ray of sunlight” (PE17:148)

[

arma

(2) noun "possessions, goods, property" (VT45:14), "a piece of goods or property" (VT45:16)]

armar

noun "goods" (pl.) (3AR). Compare the sg.

arma

"a piece of goods or property" mentioned above, though Tolkien struck out that text.

armaro

noun "neighbour"; also

asambar

,

asambaro

(VT48:20, VT49:25)

armë

prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (exclusive), changed from

anwë

(VT49:25); see

ara

.

armet

prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (dual), changed from

arwet

(VT49:25); see

ara

.

Armenelos

place-name, City of the Kings in Númenor (

ar-menel-os

(

to

) "royal-heaven-city"???) The stem should possibly be *

Armenelost

- (compare

Mandos

,

Mandost

-).

Arnanórë

,

Arnanor

place-name "Arnor", Royal Land (so #

arna

= "royal"?) (Letters:428). Cf.

Arandórë

.

arni

<

anni

prep. with pron. suffix *”beside me” (VT49:25); see

ara



arquen

noun "a noble" (WJ:372), “knight” (PE17:147)

arsë

prep. with pron. suffix *”beside him/her” (informal) (VT49:25); see

ara

.

Arsë

“he is out” (VT49:23, 35, 36)

arta

(1) adj. "exalted, lofty" (PM:354), “high, noble” (PE17:118, 147); cf. names like

Artaher

,

Artanis

.

arta

(2) noun "fort, fortress" (GARAT under 3AR)

arta

(3) adv. ”etcetera” (PE17:71); see

ta

#4.

arta

(4) prep. "across, athwart" (LT2:335), perhaps rather

olla

in Tolkien’s later Quenya.

Artaher

(

Artahér

-) masc. name "noble lord" (Sindarin Arothir) (PM:346)

Artamir

masc. name *"Noble jewel" (Appendix A); cf.

mírë

.

Artanis

fem. name ”noble woman” (PM:347)

artarindo

noun “bystander” (one standing beside another as a supporter) (PE17:71). Also

astarindo

.

artaurë

noun “realm” (PE17:28). Cf.

turmen

.

artë

prep. with pron. suffix *”beside them”, changed from

astë

(VT49:25). See

ara

.

artuilë

noun "dayspring, early morn" (TUY)

Arvalin

place-name, "outside Valinor" (AR2)

Arvernien

place-name, “(the land) beside the Verna(PE17:19). It is unclear what “Verna” refers to.

Arveruen

noun third day of the Valinorian week of 5 days, dedicated to Aule and Yavanna (BES)

arwa

(1) adj. "in control of, possessing" (followed by genitive, e.g. *

arwa collo

, "having a cloak [

colla

]"). Also suffix -

arwa

"having", as in

aldarwa

"having trees, tree-grown" (3AR). In a deleted entry in the Etymologies, -

arwa

was glossed "having, possessing, holding, controlling" (VT45:14)

[

arwa

(2) noun "possessions, belongings, wealth (VT45:14)]

arwë

(1) prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (inclusive) (VT49:25); see

ara

.

[

arwë

(2) noun "possessions, wealth; treasure" (VT45:14, 16)]

arya

(1) adj. “excelling”, used as the comparative form of

mára

“good”, hence *“better” (PE17:57). The superlative (*“best”) is

i arya

with the article, with genitive to express *“the best of…” Cf.

mára

.

arya

- (2) vb. “to excel” (PE17:56). Cf. #1 above.

arya

(3) noun "twelve hours, day" (AR1; compare

aurë

). In deleted notes this word was also used as an adjective: "of the day, light" (VT45:6). Still according to VT45:6,

arya

is also the name of Tengwa #26 in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies, but Tolkien would later call #26

arda

instead (indeed

arya

was changed from

arda

in the source; Tolkien would later change his mind back again). The abandoned name

arya

suggests that the letter was to have the value

ry

(rather than

rd

as in the classical system outlined in LotR Appendix E). – Since the word for “day” (daylight period) is given as

aurë

in later sources, and

arya

is assigned other meanings in late material (see #1, 2 above), the conceptual validity of

arya

“day” is questionable.%

[

arya

- (4) vb. "to possess" (VT45:14)]

Aryantë

noun "Daybringer" (AR1, ANA1)

aryon

noun "heir" (GAR under 3AR). In a deleted entry in the Etymologies, the word was given as

aryo

,

aryon

and defined as "son of property = heir" (VT45:14), whereas in VT45:16 (reproducing deleted material from the Etymologies), the word is defined as "heir, prince". Alternative form

haryon

.

as

prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix:

aselyë

"with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29). The conjunction

ar

“and” may also appear in assimilated form

as

before

s

; see

ar

#1.

a

sa

(

þ

) prefix denoting easiness in doing, cf.

asalastë

. The prefix often appears in reduced form

as

- before

p

,

t

,

c

,

q

,

s

(PE17:148), cf.

ascenë

.

asalastë

(*

a

þa

-) adj. “easily heard” (PE17:148)

asambar

,

asambaro

noun "neighbour"; also

armaro

(VT48:20). Since the ending -

o

is associated with the masculine gender, the form

asambar

may be gender-neutral whereas the other forms are gender-marked as masculine.

[

asanótë

]

(

þ

) ?adj. (not glossed, perhaps *”easily counted” (PE17:172)
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