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McCLELLAIY, JOHN BROWN - With the 80L6 assistance, after volume VI., Of


McCLELLAIY, JOHN BROWN:

Church of Eng­land; b. in Glasgow, Scotland, Mar. 7, 1838. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1858; M.A., 1861). He was fellow of his college (1859 81). Ordained deacon in 1860, and priest in 1861, he was vicar of Bottisham, Cambridge­shire (1861 ,80); and rural dean of first division of Camp's deanery (1871 77). In 1880 he was ap­pointed principal of the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, Gloucestershire. He is the author of: Fourth Nicene Canon and the Election and Con­secration of Bishops (London, 1870); and The New Testament: A New Translation (only one vol. pub­lished; 1875).

McCLINTOCg, JOHN: Methodist Episcopalian; b. in Philadelphia Oct. 27, 1814; d. at Madison, N. J., Mar. 4, 1870. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1835 and was re­ceived as a traveling preacher in the New Jersey Annual Conference the same year. From 1836 to 1843 he taught in Dickinson College, Carlisle, Penn., holding the chair of mathematics 1836 40, and that of Greek and Latin 18408. He was then editor of The Methodist Quarterly Review 1848 56. In 1857 he went to England as a delegate to the Wes­leyan Methodist Conference. He was pastor of St. Paul's Methodist Church, New York, 18570, and pastor of the American Chapel, Paris, 1860 64. During the Civil War in America his pen was con­stantly active in the interest of the Union cause. In 1864 he was recalled to St. Paul's, but ill health forced him to resign a year later. From 1867 till his death he was president of the newly established Drew ,Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J. He was an eloquent and impressive preacher and one of the best scholars that his denomination has pro­duced. In addition to a popular series of Greek and Latin teat books and numerous articles in peri­odicals, he published Analysis of Watson's Theo­logical Institutes (New York, 1842; a translation of. Neander's Life of Christ (1847); Sketches of Eminent Methodist Ministers (1852); The Temporal Power of the Pope (1853); and a translation of Bungener's History of the Council of Trent (1855). His most important work, however, was the Cycloptadia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (10 vo1s. and Supplement 2 vole., New York, 1867 87). In collaboration with James Strong he began to col­lect materials for this work as early ere 1853, but lived to see only three volumes through the press. After his death there appeared Living Words (1870), a

volume of sermons; and Lectures on Theological En­cyclopcedia and Methodology (1873).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. R. Crooks, Lifer and Letters of Rev. John McClintock, New York, 187.

McCLOSBEY, JOHN: American cardinal; b. in Brooklyn Mar. 20, 1810; d. in New York Oct. 10, 1885. He studied at Mount St. Mary's Col­lege, Emmitsburg, Md., was ordained priest is 1834, and then pursued postgraduate studies in theology at the Roman College. Returning to America in 1837 he was assigned for pariah duty to St. Joseph's Church, New York City. When St. John's College, Fordham, was opened in 1841 he was appointed its first president, but the year fol­lowing he returned to his parish work at St. Jo­seph's. In 1844 he was appointed coadjutor to Bishop Hughes of the diocese of New York, being made titular bishop of Axiere, in partitua infidel­ium. He was consecrated Mar. 10, and though as­sisting the bishop in his episcopal functions, he re­tained his position as pastor of St. Joseph's parish. In, 1847 he was transferred from New York to be­come the first bishop of the newly erected diocese of Albany, and this post he filled during the ensu­ing seventeen years. The new diocese included nearly all of the northern and eastern portions of the state of New York, and throughout this vast territory Roman Catholics were relatively few and without resources; there were in all only about forty churches and many of these were without priests. During his administration conditions were greatly improved and much was done by way of organization and development. Thus in Albany he built the fine cathedral of the Immaculate Con­ception, which was dedicated in 1852; new par­ishes were established in great numbers throughout the diocese; many schools and homes were erected, and in 1864 St. Joseph's Provincial Seminary for the training of ecclesiastical students was opened in Troy. In May of the same year he was ap­pointed to succeed Archbishop Hughes in the met­ropolitan see of New York. In this capacity he attended the Vatican Council in 1870, and was a member of the committee on ecclesiastical disci­pline. In 1875 he was made cardinal by Pius IX. with the title of Sancta Maria supra Minervam. On the death of Pius IX. in 1878 he left for Rome. in order to attend the conclave in which Leo XIII. was elected, but arrived too late to take part in the proceedings. He had a distinguished career as s churchman, having taken an important part in the remarkable development of the Roman Catholic Church in New York during that period. He was a prelate of more than ordinary scholarship, and though mild and gentle in character, he possessed the firmness necessary to the leader, together with great executive ability JAMEa

F. DRISCOLL.



BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. G. Sheer, Hiat. of the Catholic Church

within the Limits of the United States, vol. iv., passim, New York, 1892; Lives of the Clergy of New York and Brooklyn, ib. 1874.

McCLURE, JAMES GORE KING:

Presby­terian; b. at Albany, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1848. He was educated at Yale (A.B., 1870) and Princeton Theological Seminary, from which. he was gradu­ated in 1873. He was ordained to the Presbyte 




~oCr~e °at THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 108

rian ministry in 1874, and from that year until 1879 was pastor at New Scotland, N. Yi, after which he traveled in Europe for two years. He was then pastor at Lake Forest, Ill., until 1905, and also president of Lake Forest University from 1897 until his resignation in 1901. Since 1905 he has been president of McCormick Theological Sem­inary. He was also president of the College Board of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in 1903 04. He has written: Posax'bilities (Chicago, 1896); The Man mho Wanted to Help (1897); The Great Appeal (1898); Environment (1899); For Hearts that Hope (1900); A mighty Means of Llsefxdness (1901); Luring /'or the Best (1903); The Growing Pastor (1904); Loyalty the Soul of Religion (190b); and Supreme Things (sermons; 1908).

McCLYMOfIT, JAMES ALEXANDER:

Church of Scotland; b. at Girvan (17 m. s.w. of Ayr), Ayrshire, May 26, 1848. He was educated at the universities of Edinburgh (M.A., 1867; B.D., 1870) and Tubingen, and was assistant in Dundee Pariah Church from 1871 to 1874. Since the latter year he has been minister of Holburn Parish, Aberdeen, as well as chaplain to the Gordon Highlanders. He was examiner in Hebrew in Aberdeen University in 1894 and in Hebrew and Biblical criticism in 1906 08, and is also convener of the Business Com­mittee of the Aberdeen Synod and a member of the General Committee of the Church of Scotland. In theology he describes himself as an " Evangelical Broad Churchman." Besides his work as joint edi­tor (with A. H. Charteris) of the Guild Text Books (Edinburgh, 1890 sqq.) and the Guild Library (London, 1895 sqq.), he has translated J. T. Beck's Pastorallehren des Neuen Testamentes (Giltersloh, 1880) under the title Pastoral Theology of the New Testament (in collaboration with T. Nicol; Edin­burgh, 1885); and has written The New Testament and its Writers (1892); St. John's Gospel in The Century Bible (1901); and Greece (London, 1906).

McC00g, HENRY CHRISTOPHER:

Presbyter­ian; b. at New Lisbon, O., July 3, 1837. He was educated at Jefferson College (B.A., 1859) and at the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. (1859 61). He was first lieutenant, and afterward chaplain, in the Forty first Regiment Illinois Volunteers. He has held pastorates at Clinton, Ill. (1861 63) ; St. Louis, Mo. (1863 69) ; and at Philadelphia, Pa. (1869 1902; since 1903, pastor emeritus). He has written: Object and Outline Teaching: Guide Book for Sunday School Workers (St. Louis, 1871); Teacher's Commentary on Gospel Narrative of Last Year of our Lord's Ministry (Philadelphia, 1871); was a contributor to the Tercentenary Book (of the Heidelberg Catechism; 1863); Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of Texas (1879); Honey Ants of the Garden of the Gods and the Occident Ants of the American Plains (1881); Tenants of an Old Farm: Leaves from the Note­Book of a  Naturalist (New York, 1885 [1884]); Women Friends of Jesus (1886 [1885]); Gospel in Nature (Philadelphia, 1886); American Spiders, and their Spinning Work (3 vole., 1890 93); Old Farm Fairies (1895); the Latimers: Tale of the Western

Insurrection of 1794 (1898 [189?]); Martial Graves of our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba (1899); The Senator: a Threnody (1905); Nature's Crafts­men: Popular Studies of Ants and other Insects (New York, 1907); and Ant Communities (1909).

naProtestant Episcopal bishop coadjutor of western Michigan; b. at Richmond, Va., Feb. 1, 1863. He was edu­cated at Randolph Macon College, Va. (A.B., 1883) and Johns Hopkins University (1886,88). From 1883 to 1893 he was a Methodist Episcopal minis­ter, but entering the Protestant Episcopal Church he was rector successively of St. Paul's, Suffolk, Va., 1893 to 1895, of St. Luke's, Atlanta, Ga., 1895, and of St. Mark's, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1898. In 1906 he was consecrated bishop coadjutor of west­ern Michigan. He has written: Distinctive Marks of the Episcopal Church (Milwaukee, 1902); The Litany and the Life (1904); and Pain and Sympathy (1907).

McCOSH, JAMES: Presbyterian divine and educator; b. at Carekeoch (36 m. s.s.w. of Glas­gow), a farm in the parish of Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland, Apr. 1, 1811; d, at Princeton, N. J., Nov. 16, 1894. He was destined at an early age for the ministry by his father, who put him under the tui­tion of a pious man, one Quentin Smith. In 1824 he entered the University of Glasgow, and in 1829 he removed to the University of Edinburgh (M.A., 1834), where he studied divinity under Chalmers. $e was licensed by the presbytery of Ayr in 1834 and was settled first in Arbroath, a pariah of sailors and artizans, but in 1838 he was appointed pastor at Brechin, Forfarahire. At the disruption of 1843 he entered the Free Church and became superin­tendent of a mountainous district in Forfarshire. In 1850 he was called to Queen's College, Belfast, as professor of logic and metaphysics. There he not only devoted himself to the duties of his chair, but also interested himself in Evangelical work in Smithfield, establishing a church and founding schools. He took great interest in Irish affairs and was a firm advocate of the national system of schools. He desired the abolition of the Regium Donum, yet he suggested a suatentation fund, as he had done before in Scotland. In the summer of 1858 he traveled in Germany; and in 1866 he made a journey to the United States, investigating chiefly the system of education in use here. In May, 1868, he was elected president o£ the College of New Jer­sey, Princeton, which position he retained until his resignation in 1888. MeCosh was one of Prince­ton's most influential presidents; he introduced, but with more restrictions than at Harvard and. at Yale, the elective system. He was a firm, although kind, disciplinarian. After his resignation he still showed interest in the college, continuing his lectures there on philosophy for two years. As a philosopher McCosh takes a high rank; he was a firm believer in realism and strongly opposed both to idealism and to materialism. He always strove to keep abreast of the times, from the start giving his assent to the doctrine of evolution and showing how it could be reconciled with the Gospel teachings, in which he was always a firm believer. Of his voluminous




109 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA XoCl at

Xacr3Tm°

works the more important are: The Method of Divine

Government, Physical and Moral (Edinburgh, 1850); ,

Typical Forma and Special Ends in Creation (1856),

in collaboration with G. Dickie; The Intuitions of

the Mind, Inductively Investigated (London, 1860);

The Supernatural in. Relation to the Natural (Cam­

bridge, 1862); A Defense of Fundamental Truth;

being an Examination of Mr. J. S. Mill's Philoso­

phy (London, 1866); .The Laws of Discursive

Thought (1870); Christianity and Positivism (New

York, 1871); The Scottish Philosophy, Biograph­

ical, Expository, Critical (London, 1874); The Emo­

tions (1880); Psychology: the Cognitive Powers

(1886); Psychology: the Motive Powers, Emotions,

Conscience, Will (1887); The Realistic Philosophy

Defended (1887); The Religious Aspect of Evolu­

tion (1888); Gospel Sermons (1888); The First

seed Fundamental Truths (1889): and Our Moral

Nature (1892).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Life of James McCosA, a Record chiefly

Aulobiopraphieal, ed. W. M. Sloane, New York, 1898 (con­

tains s list, by J. H. Duller, of the published writings of

Dr. MoCoah).

MACCOmus, ma Wvi us, JOHANNES (Jan



Makowsky):

Polish Reformed theologian; b. at

Lobzenic, Poland, 1588; d. at Franeker, Holland,

June 24, 1644. After visiting various universities

as the tutor of young Polish nobles, and holding

disputations with Jesuits and Socinians, he entered

the University of Franeker in 1613. There he be­

came privat docent in 1614 and professor of theol­

ogy is 1615 Theologically he was a rigid Calvin­

ist of the extreme supralapea,rian school, and theses

of a corresponding character, defended in 1616 by

one of his pupils, involved him in a controversy

with his colleague Sibrandus Lubbertua (q.v.) which

was settled only by the Synod of Dort in 1619.

The synod, while neither approving nor condemning

his aupralapsarisniam, acquitted Maccovius of the

charges of heresy brought against him, but advised

him to be more cautious and peaceable. Never­

theless, he became involved in another controversy

at Dort with his subsequent colleague William Ames

(q.v.) by asserting that all things that moat be be­

lieved are not necessarily true, that no impulse

toward regeneration and effecting it exists in the

unregenerate, and that Christ is the object of faith

because of whom, but not in whom, man must be­

lieve. Maccovius' theory of Scripture was very

free, and he distinguished sharply between scholar­

ship and beliefs essential to salvation. His fame

attracted many students to Franeker. His chief

works are: Collegia theologica (Amsterdam, 1623);

and the posthumous Maccoviua rediarivus sine man­

uacripta eius typia ezacn:pta (Franeker, .1847) and

Loci communes (1650). (S. D. vwrr VEEN.)

Baitoassrai: A. Huyper, Jr., Johanna Macooniw, Ley­

den, 1899; E. L. Briemoet, Athenaeum Frisiacarum IiGri,

pp. lb1 180, Leeuwarden. 1758; J. Herings Ex, in dr­

ehisf moor Kerketijke Otschiedenie, 1831, iii. b03 b84; W.

B. 8. Boeh, Frieslanda 1Joopssdwot en keg Mike Atho­

norum to Fmnekar, ii 90 94, Leeuwarden, 1889.

MacCRACBER, HENRY MITCHELL:

Presby­

terian; b, at Oxford, O., Sept. 28, 1840. He was

educated at Miami University, Oxford, O. (A.B.,

1857), United Presbyterian Theological Seminary,

Xenia, O. (1880 82), Princeton Theological Semi­nary (from which he was graduated in 1863), sad the universities of Tubingen and'Berlin (18678). In 1857 b8 he was a teacher of classics in Grove Academy, Cedarville, O., and in 18580 was su­perintendent of the Union Schools of South Charles­ton, O., after which be was pastor of the Westmin­ster Presbyterian Church, Columbus, O. (1863 67), and the First Presbyterian Church, Toledo, O. (1868,81). He was then chancellor of Western University, Pittsburg, Pa., for three years (1881­1884), and from 1884 to 1891 was professor of phi­losophy and vice chancellor of New York Univer­sity, and from 1891 to 1910 chancellor of the same institution. He was a deputy to the General As­sembly of the Free Church of Scotland in 1867 and to the General Assembly of the Irish Presbyterian Church in the same year and in 1884. He has edited, translated, and enlarged F. Piper's Evangelischer Calereder (Berlin, 1875) under the title Lives of the Leaders of our Church Universal (Philadelphia, 1880).

McCRIE, THOMAS: The name of two prominent Scotch Presbyterians.

1. The biographer of John Knox; b. at Dun (36 m. e.a.e. of Edinburgh), Berwickshire, Nov., 1772; d. at Edinburgh Aug. 5, 1835. After teach­ing for a time in the neighboring elementary schools he studied at the University of Edinburgh (1788­1791), but did not graduate. In 1791 he opened an " anti burgher " school at Brechin, where he resided for three years, except during the few weeks which were annually required for attendance at the theological seminary of the General Associate Synod (anti burgher) at Whitburn. He was licensed in 1795 by the associate presbytery of Kelso, and in 1796 he was ordained pastor of the Potterrow Church, Edinburgh. In 1806, owing to differences about the province of civil magistrates in religious affairs, a schism occurred in the anti burgher de­nomination, and McCrie and three other ministers withdrew from the General Associate Synod and on Aug. 28, 1806, organized the Constitutional As­sociate Presbytery, which in 1827 was merged in the Synod of Original Secedera. At the end of a lawsuit McCrie was ejected from the Potterrow Church in 1809. His congregation then built him the bleat Richmond Street Church, where he con­tinued his ministrations till his death. During the years 1816 18 he filled the chair of divinity in the theological seminary of his denomination. Mo­Cries works grew chiefly out of investigations which the controversies of the time led him to make into the early history of the Church of Scotland. His mgt important work is his Life of John Knox (2 vole., Edinburgh, 1812; 2d ed., enlarged, 1813), which not only placed McCrie in the front rank of the authors of his day, but also produced a great change of popular sentiment in regard to Knox. It was distinguished by original, painstaking re­search, independence of judgment, judicial fairness of mind, and singular clearness of style; and its effect on the general estimate of Knox among men was not unlike that produced, in the succeeding generation, in reference to Cromwell, by the publi­cation of Carlyle's monograph. There is reason to




Xsoedonins

THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 110

believe that the impulse given by it to the study of the history of the Scottish Reformation, and the principles involved in the subsequent conflicts of the Scottish Church, did much to bring about that movement which resulted in the disruption of 1843. Other works are, The Life of Andrew Melville (2 vole., 1819); History of the Progress and Suppres­sion of the Reformation in Italy (1827); and History of the Progress and Suppression of the Reformation in Spain (1829). Posthumous were, Sermons (1836) and Miscellaneous Writings, Chiefly Historical (1841). His son, Thomas MeCrie, edited his Works (4 vole., 1855 57).

B:HUOaaerar: A Memoir, by his eon, was prefixed to the Works, ut sup., and s Life of Thomas McCrie, D.D., by the same, appeared Edinburgh, 1840; DNB, azv. 13­14. There is also s Memoir of Dr. McCrie by A. Crich­ton in the letter's ed. of MeCrie'e Life o1 John Knox, Edin­burgh, 1840.

2. Son and biographer of the preceding; b. at Edinburgh Nov. 7, 1797; d. there May 9, 1875. He studied at the University of Edinburgh, entered the ministry of the Original Secession Church in 1820, and, after holding pastorates at Crieff and Clola, succeeded his father in 1836 as minister of the West Richmond Street Church, Edinburgh. The same year he was given the chair of divinity at the Original Secession Hall. In 1852 he joined the Free Church of Scotland, at the union with it of the larger part of the Original Secession Church. He took a prominent part in the deliberations neces­sary for effecting this union and in 1856 was mod­erator of the Free Church assembly. In 1866 he became professor of church history sad systematic theology in the Presbyterian College, London. His principal works are, Life of Thomas McCrie (Edin­burgh, 1840); Sketches of Scottish Church History (1841); Lectures on Christian Baptism (1850); Me­moirs of Sir Andrew Agnew (1850); and Annals of English Prealrytxry, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time (London, 1872).

BraicoossrHy:

DNB, xcav. 14.

M'CURDY, JAMES FREDERICK: Presby­terian; b. at Chatham, New Brunswick, Feb. 18, 1847. He was educated at the University of New Brunswick (A.B., 1866), and after being principal of Aestigouche County Grammar School, Dalhousie, New Brunswick, in 1867 88, entered Princeton Theological Seminary, from which he was gradu­ated in 1871 and where he studied two additional years (1871 72). He was then assistant professor of Oriental languages in the same institution from 1873 to 1882, after which he studied at the uni­versities of Gottingen and Leipsio until 1884. He was lecturer at Princeton Theological Seminary on the Stone foundation in 1885 86, and in. the latter year was appointed lecturer on Oriental literature in University College, Toronto, where he was pro­moted to his present position of professor of the same subject in 1888. In addition to numerous contributions to The Jewish Encyclopedia, Hastings Dictionary of the Bible, and the Standard Bile Dictionary, to theological periodicals, and besides preparing the sections on the Psalms, Hoses, and Haggai for the American edition of J. P. Lange's

commentary on the Bible (New York, 1872 76)

he

has written: Aryo Semitic Speech: A Study in Lin­guistic Archeology (Andover, 1881); History, Proph­ecy, and the Monuments (3 vole., London, 1894­1901); and Life of D. J. Macdonnell (Toronto, 1897).

MACDONALD, DUNCAN BLACK: Presbyte­rian; b. at Glasgow, Scotland, Apr. 9, 1&33. He was educated at the university of his native city (M.A., 1885; B.D., 1888), where he was later scholar and fellow, and then studied Semitica at the University of Berlin (189U 91, 1893). Since 1892 he has been professor of Semitic languages in Hartford Theological Seminary. He was Haskell lecturer in comparative religion in the University of Chicago in 1905 06. He is editor of the Mohamme­dan section of J. Hastings' Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics, and is editor of the concordance of the Peshitta being prepared under the auspices of Hart­ford Theological Seminary. He has written: Devel­opment of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence, and Constitutional Theory (New York, 1903); and Re­ligious Attitude and Life in Islam (Chicago, 1909; Haskell lectures).

MACDONALD, FREDERIC WILLIAM: Eng­lish Methodist; b. at Leeds Feb. 25, 1842. He was educated at Owens College, Manchester (B.A., 1862), and after being a Wesleyan minister from 1862 to 1881, was professor of systematic theology in Handsworth College, Birmingham, from 1881 to 1891. From the latter year until 1905 he was sec­retary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, of which he has since been honorary secretary, and in 1899­1900 was likewise president of the Wesleyan Metho­dist Conference. He was also joint editor of the London Quarterly Review from 1871 to 1875, and in 1880 represented the British Methodist Conference at the General Conference of the Methodist Episco­pal Church of America,. He has written: Life of Fletcher of Madeley (London, 1885); Life of Will­iam, Money Punshon (1887); Latin Hymns in the Wesleyan Hymn Book (1900); and In a Nook with a Book (1907).

McDOWELL, WILLIAM FRASER:

Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Millersburg, O., Feb. 4 1858. He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan Uni­versity (A.B., 1879) and Boston University (S.T.B., 1882), and from 1882 to 1890 held successive pas­torates at Lodi, O. (1882 83), Oberlin, O. (1883­188b), and Tiffin, O. (1885 90), after which he was chancellor of the University of Denver for nine years (1890 99). From 1899 to 1904 he was cor­responding secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1904 was elected bishop of his denomination. He was a mem­ber of the Colorado State Board of Charities and Cor­rections in 1894 99 and president of the Religious Education Society in 1905 06, while since 1899 he has bin a member of the International Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association.

MACDUFF, JOHN ROSS:

Church of Scotland; b. at Bonhard in the parish of Scone, Perthshire, May 23, 1818; d. at Chislehuret (10 m. s.e. of Lon­don), Kent, England, Apr. 30, 1895. He was edu­

cated at the University of Edinburgh, end wee






111 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Xocrie

Maoedonius

pastor successively of Kettins, Forfarshire (1843­

11349), of St. Madoea, Perthshire (1849 55), and of

Sandyford parish, Glasgow (1855 70). In 1870 he

retired to Chislehurst and devoted himself to the

composition of religious literature. His publica­

tions were very numerous. They are mostly small

devotional manuals, characterized by a devout and

practical imagination, and have been read by thou­

sands in his own country and in America. Possibly

of these the two most famous volumes are The

Morning and Night Watches (in one vol., London,

323d thousand in 1904); and The Mind and Wards

of Jesus (in one vol., 341st thousand). He wrote

also verse, of which he issued a collected edition,

Matin and Vesper Bells (2 vole., 1898). Two of his

hymns have found their way into hymn books,

Christ is coming," and " Everlasting Arms of

love." His autobiography, Reminiscences of a

Long Life, by the Author of Morning and Night

Watches, appeared 1896.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Consult, besides the Reminiacenaea, ut. cup,

edited by his daughter, 8. W. Duffield, English Hymns,

pp. 88 87, New York, 1888; Julian, Hymnology, p. 708.

MACEDONIA IN THE APOSTOLIC AGE:

After

the battle of Pydna (188 B.C.) Macedonia passed

under Roman dominion and was divided into four

districts. In 146 B.C. it became a province, and

under Augustus it passed to the senate; under

Tiberius and Claudius it was an imperial charge

and was united with Aehaia; but after 44 B.C. it

belonged again to the Senate. In the third and

fourth centuries it was again divided into four

provinces. Ptolema'us (iii. 13) thus describes its

extent: " On the east the river Nestus formed the

boundary toward Thracia, so that Philippi politic­

ally belonged to Macedonia. [This agrees with

Acts xvi. 9, where the ` man of Macedonia' ap­

peared to Paul asking him to come over into Mace­

donia, who went by way of Samothrace directly to

Neapolis Philippi, passing around Thrace.] On

the north, Macedonia bordered on Dahnatia Illyri­

cum; in the west, on the Adriatic Sea. The south­

ern boundary is uncertain." As in other provinces,

there was also a provincial council for Macedonia

which probably met in Thessalonica, which was

called the " first [city] of Macedonia." The prin­

cipal cities were connected by the Via Egnatia, a

fine military road, which Paul used from Neapolia

to Thessalonica,. From Neapolis, opposite to the

island of Thasos, the road led to Philippi, a city

founded by Philip of Macedonia. Octavianua

planted a Roman colony there (cf. Acts xvi. 12)

which was considerably enlarged after the battle

at Actium. The population was almost entirely

Roman, as the many Latin inscriptions prove.

The masters of the prophesying slaves (Acts xvi.

16 21) were Romans. The officers also were Ro­

mans (praetors, not politarchs). The number of

Jews in Philippi seems to have been not very large,

for Paul intended to stay there only a few days,

and a congregation seems not to have existed at

all. Acts xvi. 13 says nothing of a synagogue (as

in xvii. 1), it mentions only a praying place for

women outside of the gate by the river. The next

two stations on the Via Egnatia, at which Paul

only touched, were Amphipolis and Apollonia.



Then comes Theasalonica, formerly called Thermae. According to Philip it was a free city, the capital of the province. In the time of Strabo it was very populous. It had its politarchs (Acts xvii. 6), though their number is uncertain, also a council (demos, Acts xvii. 5). The politarchs had police jurisdiction and were responsible to the provincial authorities for order and quiet in the city (xvii. 6 aqq). That Paul selected this important commer­cial city as a missionary field is in accord with his custom; in the Acts a further motive was the fact that a synagogue of the Jews was there. This " would mean that the Jews of the entire district, including those of Amphipolis and Apollonia, cen­tered their worship at Thessalonica" (Zahn). Thus is explained also why the apostle passed by Amphipolis and Apollonia. The influence of the Jews in Theasa­lonica must have been very great; it was felt even at Berea, the first city to go over to the Romans after the battle of Pydna. This last was one of the moat populous cities of Macedonia. (J.

WEISS.)



BIBLiOaRAPHY:

J. Marquardt, Rsmiache StaaWvenualtunp, i. 318 321, Leipeie, 1881; W. M. Leaks, Travels in North­ern Green, vol. iii., London, 1835; T. A. Desdevizea du­Dezert, G€opmphie ancienne de to Mac€doine, Paris, 1863; L. Heuzey, Mission arrh6olnpique de Mac6dodne, Paris, 1878; B. Nieae, Geschichte der griechiachen and makedoni­

schen

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