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Welcome to the World of P’shat Exegesis - Triennial Cycle (Triennial Torah Cycle) / Septennial Cycle (Septennial Torah Cycle)


Welcome to the World of P’shat Exegesis



In order to understand the finished work of the P’shat mode of interpretation of the Torah, one needs to take into account that the P’shat is intended to produce a catechetical output, whereby a question/s is/are raised and an answer/a is/are given using the seven Hermeneutic Laws of R. Hillel and as well as the laws of Hebrew Grammar and Hebrew expression.

The Seven Hermeneutic Laws of R. Hillel are as follows

[cf. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=472&letter=R]:

1. Ḳal va-ḥomer:

"Argumentum a minori ad majus" or "a majori ad minus"; corresponding to the scholastic proof a fortiori.

2. Gezerah shavah:

Argument from analogy. Biblical passages containing synonyms or homonyms are subject, however much they differ in other respects, to identical definitions and applications.

3. Binyan ab mi-katub eḥad:

Application of a provision found in one passage only to passages which are related to the first in content but do not contain the provision in question.

4. Binyan ab mi-shene ketubim:

The same as the preceding, except that the provision is generalized from two Biblical passages.

5. Kelal u-Peraṭ and Peraṭ u-kelal:

Definition of the general by the particular, and of the particular by the general.

6. Ka-yoẓe bo mi-maḳom aḥer:

Similarity in content to another Scriptural passage.

7. Dabar ha-lamed me-'inyano:

Interpretation deduced from the context.

Reading Assignment:



 

The Torah Anthology: Yalkut Me’Am Lo’Ez - Vol II: The Patriarchs



By: Rabbi Yaaqov Culi, Translated by: Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan

Published by: Moznaim Publishing Corp. (New York, 1988)

Vol. 2 – “The Patriarchs,” pp. 49-80.

Rashi’s Commentary for: ‎

B’resheet (Genesis)

14:1-24



1 Amraphel

This is Nimrod, who said (אָמַר) to Abram, Fall (פּוֹל) into the fiery furnace. (Gen. Rabbah) [from Mid. Tan., Lech Lecha 6; Er. 53a, Targum Jonathan]

 

the king of Goyim

There is a place named Goyim because [people] from many nations (גוֹיִם) and places assembled there, and they crowned over them a man named Tidal (Gen. Rabbah 42:4).

 

2 Bera

He was evil (רַע) to Heaven and evil to people. [from Tan. Lech Lecha 8]

 

Birsha

He was elevated in wickedness (רֶשַׁע) . [cf. Tan. Lech Lecha 8]

 

Shineab

He hated (שׂוֹנֵא) his Father (אָב) in Heaven. [from Tan. ad loc.]

 

Shemeber

He made (שָׂם) wings (אֵבֶר) to fly and to spring and to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He. [from Tan. ad loc.]

 

Bela

the name of the city.

 

3 the valley of Siddim

This was its name because there were many fields (שָׂדוֹת) in it, and there are many Aggadic midrashim. [from Targum Onkelos]

 

which is the Dead Sea

Afterwards, the sea flowed into it, and it became the Dead Sea. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 42:6), however, states that the rocks around it split, and rivers flowed into it.

 

4 For twelve years they served

These five kings [served] Chedorloemer.

 

5 And in the fourteenth year of their rebellion

, Chedorloemer came. Since the matter concerned him, he bore “the heavier side of the beam” [i.e., he bore a major part of the responsibility]. [from Gen. Rabbah 42:6]

 

and the kings

These are the three kings.

 

and the Zuzim

These are the Zamzumim. See Deut. 2:20.

 

6 in their mountain

Heb. בְהַרְרָם , in their mountain. [from Targum Onkelos]

 

the plain of Paran

Heb. אֵיל According to its Aramaic translation, it means a plain. I say, however, that אֵיל does not mean a plain, but rather, that the plain of Paran was named Eil, and that [the plain] of Mamre was named Elonei, and that [the plain] of the Jordan was named Kikkar, and that [the plain] of Shittim was named Abel, אָבֵל הַשִׁטִים (Num. 33.49). And similarly, Baal- gad [was a plain] named Baal. [Though] they are all translated מִישׁוֹר , a plain, each one has its name accompanying it.

 

alongside the desert

Heb. עַל alongside the desert, like (Num. 2:20): “and alongside them (וְעָלָיו) was the tribe of Manasseh.”-[from Targum Onkelos]

 

7 Ein Mishpat, which is Kadesh

lit. the fountain of judgment. [It was thus called] because of the future, for Moses and Aaron were destined to be judged there concerning matters [that would occur at] that fountain, viz. the waters of Meribah (Tan. Lech Lecha 8). Onkelos, however, rendered it according to its simple meaning, the place where the people of the province would assemble for all litigation.

 

field of the Amalekites

Amalek had not yet been born, but it was given this appellation because of the [name it would bear] in the future. [from Tan. ad loc.]

 

in Hazezon Tamar

This is Ein-Gedi. This is an explicit verse in (II) Chronicles (20:2) concerning Jehoshaphat.

 

9 four kings

Nevertheless, the few were victorious. This is to inform you that they were mighty men. Despite this, Abram did not hesitate to pursue them. [from Gen. Rabbah 42:7]

 

10 many clay pits

There were many pits there from which they took earth for the clay for building (Targum Onkelos). The Midrashic explanation (Gen. Rabbah ad loc.), is that the clay was kneaded in them [i.e., in the pits], and a miracle was wrought for the king of Sodom that he escaped from there, because some of the nations did not believe that Abraham had been saved from Ur of the Chaldees, from the fiery furnace, but since this one escaped from the clay, they believed in Abraham retroactively.

 

fled to a mountain

[Meaning]: They fled to a mountain. The word הֶרָה is the same as לְהַר . Any word that requires a lamed at the beginning, may have a hey added to it at the end [instead]. But there is a difference between הֶרָה and הָהָרָה for the hey at the end of the word takes the place of the lamed at the beginning [of the word], but it does not take the place of a lamed vowelized with a pattach under it. Now הֶרָה is like לְהַר or like אֶל הַר , [to a mountain] but it does not specify to which mountain, for each one fled to whichever mountain he found first. But when the letter hey is placed at the beginning, by writing הָהָרה , or הַמִדְבָּרה , it is to be interpreted as הָהָר אֶל , or like לְהָהָר , [to the mountain], and it refers to that mountain that is known and specified in the chapter.

 

12 and he was living in Sodom

What brought this about to him [that he was taken captive]? His living in Sodom. [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]

 

13 And the fugitive came

According to its simple meaning, this was Og, who escaped from the battle, and that is what is referred to in (Deut. 3:11): “Only Og survived from the rest of the Rephaim.” And that is the meaning of “survived,” that Amraphel and his allies did not kill him when they smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim [Midrash Tanchuma (Chukkath 25)]. The Midrash Gen. Rabbah [explains]: This is Og, who escaped from the Generation of the Flood, and this is the meaning of “from the rest of the Rephaim,” as it is said: (above 6:4): “The Nephilim were on the earth, etc.” And he [Og] intended that Abram should be killed and he would marry Sarah (Gen. Rabbah 42:8).

 

the Hebrew

Heb. הָעִבְרִי [So called] because he came from the other side (מֵעֵבֶר) of the [Euphrates] river (Gen. Rabbah 42:8).

 

Abram’s confederates

lit. the masters of Abram’s covenant. Because they made a covenant with him. (Other editions add: Another explanation of [ בַּעֲלֵי בְּרִית ]: They gave him advice concerning circumcision (Aggadath Bereishith 19:3), as is explained elsewhere) (below 18:1). [According to Aggadath Bereishith, the covenant mentioned is that of circumcision.]

 

14 and he armed

Heb. וַיָרֶק , like its Aramaic translation: וְזָרֵיז , [and he armed], and similarly (Lev. 26:33): וַהֲרִיקֽתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב [which Onkelos renders]: “and I will arm Myself with My sword against you,” and similarly (Exod. 15:9): “I will arm myself (אָרִיק) with my sword, and similarly (Ps. 35:3): “And arm Yourself (וְהָרֵק) with a spear and ax.”-[from Gen. Rabbah 43:2]

 

his trained men

Heb. חֲנִיכָיו It is written חֲנִיכוֹ [in the singular], his trained man, (other editions: It is read). This is Eliezer, whom he had trained to [perform the] commandments, and it [ חֲנִיכָיו ] is an expression of the initiation (lit. the beginning of the entrance) of a person or a utensil to the craft with which he [or it] is destined to remain, and similarly (Prov. 22: 6): “Train (חֲנֽךְ) a child ;” (Num. 7:10): “the dedication of (חֲנֻכַּת) the altar ;” (Ps. 30:1): “the dedication of of (חֲנֻכַּת) the Temple,” and in Old French it is called enseigner [to instruct, train].

 

three hundred and eighteen

Our Sages said (Gen. Rabbah 43:2, Ned. 32a): It was Eliezer alone, and it [the number 318] is the numerical value of his name.

 

until Dan

There he became weak, for he saw that his children were destined to erect a calf there (Sanh. 96a). The reference is to I Kings 12:29: “And he (Jeroboam) placed one in Beth-el, and the other he placed in Dan.”

 

15 And he divided himself against them

According to its simple meaning, transpose the verse: “And he divided himself, he and his servants, upon them at night,” as is customary for pursuers, who divide themselves after the pursued when they flee, one here and one there.

 

at night

i.e., after nightfall he did not refrain from pursuing them. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 43:3) states, however, that the night was divided, and in its first half, a miracle was wrought for him, and its second half was preserved for the [miracle of] midnight in Egypt.

 

until Hobah

There is no place named Hobah, but Dan is called Hobah [culpable] because of the idolatry which would be practiced there [in the future]. [from Tan. Lech Lecha 13]

 

17 to the valley of Shaveh

That is its name, and the Targum renders: to the clear plain. It was clear of trees and of every obstacle.

 

the valley of the king

[Onkelos renders:] the king’s race course; one race course was thirty rods long, which was designated for the king to play there. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 42: 5, 43:5), however, [explains that it was] a valley where all the nations concurred (הֻשְׁווּ) and crowned Abram over them as a prince of God and as an officer.

 

18 And Malchizedek

The Midrash Aggadah (Targum Jonathan, Ned. 32b, Mid. Ps. 76:3) states that he was Shem, the son of Noah.

 

bread and wine

This is done for those weary from battle, and he [Malchizedek] demonstrated that he bore no grudge against him [Abram] for slaying his sons (Tan. Lech Lecha 15). And according to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 43:6), he hinted to him about the meal offerings and the libations, which his [Abraham’s] children would offer up there.

 

19 Who possesses heaven and earth

- Heb. קֽנֶה , like (Ps. 115:15): the Maker of heaven and earth. By making them, He acquired them to be His.

 

20 Who has delivered

Heb. מִגֵן , Who has delivered, and likewise, (Hosea 11:8): I shall deliver you (אֲמַגֶנְךָ) , O Israel.

 

and he gave him

[i.e.,] Abram [gave Malchizedek] a tithe from all that was his because he was a priest. [from Gen. Rabbah 44:7]

 

21 Give me the souls

Of that which was captured that belonged to me, which you rescued, give me back the people only.

 

22 I raise my hand

Heb. הֲרִמֽתִי , lit. I raised. This is an expression of an oath. “I raise my hand to the Most High God.” And similarly (Gen. 22:16): בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי ‚ [means] “I swear by Myself,” and similarly (Gen. 23:13): נָתַתִּי כֶּסֶף הַשָׂדֶה קַח מִמֶנִי [means] “I am giving you the price of the field, take it from me.”-[from Gen. Rabbah 43: 9]

 

23 Neither from a thread to a shoe strap

will I keep for myself of the captured possessions.

 

nor will I take from whatever is yours

And if you offer [lit. say] to give me reward from your treasuries, I will not take [it].

 

that you should not say, etc

The Holy One, blessed be He, promised to make me rich, as it is said (above 12:2): “and I will bless you, etc.”

 

24 the lads

My servants who went with me, and additionally, Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre, etc. Although my servants entered the battle, as it is stated (above verse 14): “he and his servants, and smote them,” while Aner and his companions stayed with the luggage to guard [it], nevertheless, “they shall take their share.” And from him, David learned, as he said (I Sam. 30:24): “for as the share of him who goes down into battle, so is the share of him who stays with the luggage; they shall share alike.” Therefore, it says (ibid. verse 25): “And it was so from that day (and had been so) from before, that he made it a statute and an ordinance.” It does not say וָהָלְאָה [and onwards], because that statute had already been enacted in the days of Abram. [from Gen. Rabbah 43:9]

Welcome to the World of Remes Exegesis



Thirteen rules compiled by Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha for the elucidation of the Torah and for making halakic deductions from it. They are, strictly speaking, mere amplifications of the seven Rules of Hillel, and are collected in the Baraita of R. Ishmael, forming the introduction to the Sifra and reading a follows:

  1. Ḳal wa-ḥomer:

    Identical with the first rule of Hillel.

  2. Gezerah shawah:

    Identical with the second rule of Hillel.

  3. Binyan ab:

    Rules deduced from a single passage of Scripture and rules deduced from two passages. This rule is a combination of the third and fourth rules of Hillel.

  4. Kelal u-Peraṭ:

    The general and the particular.

  5. u-Peraṭ u-kelal:

    The particular and the general.

  6. Kelal u-Peraṭ u-kelal:

    The general, the particular, and the general.

  7. The general

    which requires elucidation by the particular, and the particular which requires elucidation by the general.

  8. The particular

    implied in the general and excepted from it for pedagogic purposes elucidates the general as well as the particular.

  9. The particular implied in the general

    and excepted from it on account of the special regulation which corresponds in concept to the general, is thus isolated to decrease rather than to increase the rigidity of its application.

  10. The particular implied in the general

    and excepted from it on account of some other special regulation which does not correspond in concept to the general, is thus isolated either to decrease or to increase the rigidity of its application.

  11. The particular implied in the general

    and excepted from it on account of a new and reversed decision can be referred to the general only in case the passage under consideration makes an explicit reference to it.

  12. Deduction from the context.



  13. When two Biblical passages contradict each other

    the contradiction in question must be solved by reference to a third passage.

Rules seven to eleven are formed by a subdivision of the fifth rule of Hillel; rule twelve corresponds to the seventh rule of Hillel, but is amplified in certain particulars; rule thirteen does not occur in Hillel, while, on the other hand, the sixth rule of Hillel is omitted by Ishmael. With regard to the rules and their application in general. These rules are found also on the morning prayers of any Jewish Orthodox Siddur.
2010-07-19 18:44 Читать похожую статью
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