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Ap world History Key Terms - старонка 2

The Social Contract that in forming governments, people must give up their own interests for the good of all (the common good)



  1. Impact of the Enlightenment

    1. Enlightenment ideas were unpopular with many governments and with the church, both of whom sought to censor new ideas about reason and nature

    2. There was limited acceptance of Enlightenment ideas among monarchs; known as Enlightened despots, rulers such as Maria Theresa of Austria and Catherine the Great of Russia used their positions of authority to make some changes (not political) in society (for example, building schools and hospitals)

    3. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Enlightenment ideas played a key role in the American and French Revolutions, as well as in the Latin American wars of independence



  1. Matteo Ricci

    1. A Jesuit scholar from Europe who journeyed to the Ming court in the late 1500s

    2. Representative of Western efforts to bring Christianity to the East and the hopes of missionaries to win approval of the Chinese emperors

    3. Missionaries brought new scientific and mathematical knowledge to the imperial court, fro example, the mechanical clock, which was well received

    4. Ming emperors generally welcomed missionaries, yet they were overwhelmingly unsuccessful in gaining converts



  1. Ming Dynasty: Social and Cultural Changes

    1. The revival of the civil service exams encouraged the creation of an extensive scholar-bureaucrat class, which was responsible for much of the governance of the empire

    2. The restoration of Confucian traditions encouraged the subjugation of women, and in many ways women’s lives were even more tightly controlled than previously

    3. Widows were strongly discouraged from remarrying and foot binding became increasingly more popular an filtered down to the lower classes

    4. The Yongle Encyclopedia collection of Chinese philosophy, literature, and history was recorded

    5. The Chinese novel’s gain in popularity led to an increase in literacy



  1. Ming Economic Growth

    1. An increase in commercial activity, as well as an increase in population, led to an overall expansion of the economy

    2. New food crops, particularly foods from the Americas such as maize and peanuts, were suitable to the Chinese landscape and over time led to a population increase

    3. Overseas trade became more extensive, particularly as demand for Chinese goods such as silk and porcelain increased

    4. European merchants, as well Muslim and Asian traders, traded in China’s two main port cities

    5. The Chinese merchant class grew in wealth and power

    6. The prosperity of the Ming period was reflected in the arts and literature; calligraphy and landscape art are still highly valued



  1. Single Whip Tax System

    1. A policy put forth by the Ming in the 1570s, requiring a single national tax and that all taxes be paid in the form of silver, including those taxes paid by tributary states

    2. This change in policy had global implications, as China now had to fulfill the demand for silver

    3. Silver made its way to China from both Japan and the Americas, resulting in enormous profits for both Spain and Japan



  1. The Great Wall

    1. A stone and brick fortification in the north of China built to protect China from outside invasion

    2. Although construction of a defensive wall began in the 4th century B.C.E. under Shi Huangdi, it was completed under the Ming (in large response to the Mongol invasion of the previous period)

    3. The wall generally prevented attacks; only when the empire was suffering internally were outsiders able to go beyond the wall and invade



  1. Forbidden City

    1. Located in modern-day Beijing, it was the capital of the Ming and Qing empires

    2. An imperial city containing hundreds of buildings, courtyards, and halls

    3. Members of the imperial family, the emperor’s concubines, and court eunuchs were the only people allowed in the Inner Court

    4. The lavishness and size of the city reflected the power and authority of the empire



  1. Qing Dynasty

    1. Manchus from the north, non-Han peoples, invaded China and claimed the “mandate of heaven” in 1644 and ruled until 1911

    2. Manchu rulers were taught Confucian beliefs and applied these principles to governing China

    3. The Qing, following the political example of the Ming, ruled through a highly centralized system of scholar bureaucrats

    4. The Qing were great patrons of the arts and also were responsible for expanding the empire

    5. Under the Qing, trade with foreigners increased, particularly as demand for Chinese goods such as silk and porcelain increased; in this period, the Qing were able to maintain a favorable balance of trade



  1. Tokugawa Period: Isolation

    1. The Portuguese arrived in Japan in 1543 and established a commercial relationship between the two nations

    2. New products, including tobacco and firearms, were introduced to Japan

    3. Christian missionaries arrived in the mid 1500s in the hopes of converting the Japanese

    4. Fearful that conversion to Christianity would undermine the authority of the shogunate and aware that firearms were no match for swords, the shoguns began to resist contact with foreigners

    5. A series of seclusion acts were passed to ban missionary activities and ultimately the religion

    6. By the 1640s, foreign trade was forbidden except for very limited Dutch and Chinese trade; Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad, and very few foreigners were allowed into the country

    7. This period of self-imposed isolation was relatively peaceful and this has come to be known as the Pax Tokugawa



  1. Tokugawa Period: Political Change

    1. The unification of Japan in the late 1500s led to the establishment of a military government led by a shogun, which brought nearly 300 years of peace and stability to the nation (the Pax Tokugawa)

    2. Shoguns (supreme military rulers) sought to centralize their authority and maintain stability

    3. In prior periods, a decentralized feudal structure had allowed for the daimyo (landowning families) to gain power and rule independent of the emperor; shoguns centralized authority and thus took power away from the daimyo

    4. Daimyo estates were broken up, and attendance at the imperial court in Edo (modern-day Tokyo) was required; daimyo needed the permission of the shogun to marry and even to repair their castles



  1. Tokugawa Period: Social and Economic Changes

    1. The peace and stability in this period brought about great changes

    2. Socially, the samurai and daimyo classes, who had previously been involved in fighting civil wars, now found they could concentrate their time and wealth on new endeavors, including the arts

    3. New crops led to a population increase

    4. As Japanese cities grew and trade increased, the merchant class benefited greatly

    5. Cities were centers of new cultural traditions, including the development of kabuki theater



  1. Ottoman Empire: Rise and Expansion

    1. In 1453 the Ottoman Turks, nomads from central Asia, captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul; Ottoman control continued until the 20th century

    2. Ottoman military success came from their command of gunpowder technology (diffused from China)

    3. The Islamic empire quickly expanded as the Ottomans took control of much of the Middle East and then extended their control to the Balkans and the Crimean Peninsula, creating a multinational empire

    4. By the mid 1500s, the Ottoman Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in the Europe and the Middle East



  1. Suleyman the Magnificent

    1. As sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566, he expanded the empire into southern Europe and created an efficient centralized bureaucracy

    2. Modernized the Ottoman army

    3. Known as the Lawgiver for improving the legal system – laws were based on sharia, Islamic law

    4. He was a great patron of the arts and known for his religious tolerance



  1. Millet System

    1. In the Ottoman Empire, legally protected religious communities of non-Muslims

    2. Millets were permitted to maintain their own traditional religious beliefs

    3. Major millets were composed of Jews, Greeks, and Armenians who promised not to undermine the sultan’s authority



  1. Janissaries

    1. Soldiers in the Ottoman Empire that trained to protect and serve the sultan

    2. Many of the soldiers were young Christian boys taken from the Balkan regions and forced into the sultan’s service

    3. They were forced to convert to Islam and pledge absolute loyalty to the sultan; in return. They gained great privileges and honor



  1. Safavid Empire

    1. Following the Battle of Chaldiran, fought against the Ottoman Turks in 1514, the Safavid family consolidated their control over modern-day Iran and ruled until 1736

    2. They established the Shiite sect of Islam as the official religion of the empire

    3. Under Shah Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629) the capital was moved to Isfahan, the army was modernized, and long-distance trade flourished

    4. Constant conflict with the Ottomans, coupled with the treat of an increasingly stronger Russian Empire to the north and the Mogul Empire to the south, led to decline



  1. Mogul Empire

    1. An Islamic empire, established in India following the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate by the Moguls in 1526

    2. The Moguls unified much the subcontinent and under the leadership of Akbar established a strong centralized empire in the region

    3. During the Mogul golden age Islamic art and architecture flourished as evidenced by the building of the Taj Mahal

    4. The empire began to decline in the late 1600s: emperors abandoned policies of religious tolerance, and the arrival of Europeans posed a serious challenge to Mogul rule



  1. Akbar the Great

    1. A ruler of the Mogul Empire (r. 1556-1605), he clearly established the absolute authority of the emperor and a policy of tolerance toward the many religions in his empire

    2. Eliminated the jizya, a tax imposed on Hindus, and allowed Hindus to rise to positions of power in his government

    3. Modernized the army and encouraged long-distance trade

    4. Generous patron of the arts



  1. Taj Mahal

    1. A tomb built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, who died giving birth

    2. An excellent example of Islamic and Hindu architecture

    3. Design elements include a large dome, minarets, a reflecting pool, expansive courtyards, and the use of symmetry



  1. British Economic Interests in India

    1. Beginning in the early 1600s, Mogul emperors granted concessions to allow the British to trade in India

    2. Trading posts were set up to along the coast in places such as Madras and Bombay

    3. The British East India Company established forts to protect its commercial interest and controlled trade in India throughout the 1600s and early 1700s

    4. In the mid 1700s, following the Sepoy Rebellion, the British government tool control of trade and replaced the Mogul as the ruling authority in India



  1. Russian Empire: Rise and Expansion

    1. After breaking free of Mongol control in the late 1400s, Muscovite princes began to take control over much of Russia, eliminating the authority of local princes

    2. Ivan III, a grand prince of Moscow, developed a policy that encouraged Cossacks (peasants) to settle in the lands that he had conquered

    3. Ivan centralized his authority, claimed divine right to rule, and named himself czar

    4. Moscow was established as the capital of the new Russian Empire



  1. Ivan the Terrible

    1. Russian czar (r.1533-1584) who continued to expand the empire and to consolidate the czar’s absolute authority

    2. Sought to eliminate opposition to his authority by killing boyars (Russian nobles) he suspected of disloyalty and confiscated their lands

    3. His actions, while harsh and cruel, ensured that there would be few challenges to the Russian autocracy



  1. The Romanovs

    1. Following a period of civil unrest in Russia, Mikhail Romanov’s election as czar established the Romanovs as the new royal family

    2. They ruled Russia from the early 1600s until 1917

    3. They continued the tradition of autocratic rule established by previous czars

    4. Encouraged Russification and allegiances to the Eastern Orthodox Church



  1. Westernization

    1. Occurs as societies are influenced by Western culture and assimilate and/or adopt Western ideas

    2. In this time period, the West (western Europe) impacted numerous societies around the world

    3. Some regions responded by isolating themselves, as was the case in Japan and to a lesser degree in Russia (although during its Meiji Restoration, Japan borrowed many Western ideas)



  1. Peter the Great

    1. Russian czar (r. 1682-1725) best known for centralizing his authority and bringing Western ideas to the Russian Empire

    2. In an attempt to modernize the empire, he traveled to the West and brought back new ideas about science and technology

    3. Russians were sent abroad to learn modern military and industrial techniques

    4. He introduced many reforms that changed Russia economically and socially, yet he remained committed to autocracy and divine right

    5. He modernized the army and navy

    6. Socially, women were extended more freedoms and society in general was encouraged to “look” more Western – laws required men to shave their beards and wear Western clothing



  1. St. Petersburg

    1. Located on the Baltic Sea, was established as the capital of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great

    2. Served as a visible symbol of Russia’s efforts to modernize, as well as of the absolute authority of the czar

    3. Also known as the “window to the west,” the city welcomed western Europeans and their knowledge of science and technology



  1. Catherine the Great

    1. A Russian czarina (r.1763-1796), she continued Peter the Great’s policy of modernization while ensuring the absolute authority of the authority of the monarch

    2. Continued to expand the empire, she gained land from the Ottoman Empire and took control of Alaska

    3. Gained access to a warm-water port, a goal never realized by Peter, and took control of Poland

    4. Known as an Enlightened despot, she built schools and hospitals and was tolerant of the different religions found throughout her empire, yet remained an autocratic ruler



  1. Serfdom in Russia

    1. As the result of unpaid debts, many peasants were forced into serfdom

    2. Serfdom provided a labor force for the agrarian-based economy

    3. Serfs were laborers who were tied to the land, and although not slaves, they could be sold

    4. Czars passed laws limiting the rights of serfs, in large part to gain the favor of the nobility
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